Terms in this set (249)
The nerve is modified from an ancestor that did not have a neck
The laryngeal nerve is 15 feet long in giraffes because
The connection between structure and ________ is a basic concept of biology.
The function of body parts
A physiologist is a biologist who studies
organs that collectively preform a vital body function
An organ system consists of
molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Structure in the living world is organized into hierarchical levels. Which of the following correctlylists these from least inclusive to most inclusive?
The human, because in order to walk upright, the spine is compressed
The human spine acts like a weight-bearing column. Compare this to the spine of a horse, whichacts like an elastic suspension bridge. Which organism would you predict to experience more backpain and why?
Cause uterine pain in female patients
A leiomyoma is a benign tumor that affects smooth muscle. A large tumor of this type might bepredicted to
Which of the following is an example of a tissue?
Which of the following is a major category of animal tissue?
Lining body surfaces subject to abrasion
Stratified squamous epithelium is well-suited for
Cover both external and internal body surfaces
a fried egg
Which of the following items has a shape most like a squamous epithelial cell?
They are stratified squamous epithelial cells
Which of the following statements about the cells of the mucous membrane lining your air tubes is false?
The liquid part of the blood that consists of water, salts, and dissolved proteins is known as
Which of the following is a type of connective tissue?
Which of the following is formed from a matrix of collagen fibers embedded in a hard mineral substance?
What kind of connective tissue has an extracellular liquid matrix called plasma?
The cells are sparsely scattered through a nonliving matrix
Connective tissue is different from the other major tissue types in that
Loose connective tissue
The most common type of connective tissue in the human body is
Involuntary body activites
Smooth muscle is responsible for
Which is the most abundant kind of tissue in an animal, such as a gorilla?
Skeletal muscle is attached to bones by tendons
Which of the following statements regarding skeletal muscle is true?
Has branched cells
Unlike both smooth and skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle
The main function of muscle tissue is
Which type of tissue forms a communication and coordination system within the body?
The structural and functional unit of nervous tissue is the
An organ represents a higher level of structure than the tissue composing it and performs functionsthat the tissues cannot perform alone. This is an example of the principle of
An organ can only carry out the functions of is component tissues
Which of the following statements about organs is false?
Which of the following tissues would likely be found in the small intestine?
The respiratory system includes all of the following structures except the
Which organ system removes nitrogen-containing waste products from blood?
Fingernails are a component of the ________ system
Which of the following is a part of the immune system?
Fibrous connective tissue
A common knee injury in athletes involves the anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL. The ACLconsists of tissue that connects the bones of the femur (upper leg bone) and tibia (lower leg bone).What kind of tissue would you expect to be damaged in an ACL injury?
After cutting your finger, a blood clot forms
Which of the following is not an example of negative feedback?
Defense against microbes by the immune system
Which of the following forms of homeostasis would not be affected by a severe burn involving boththe epidermis and dermis?
Loose connective tissue
Facelifts are a type of cosmetic surgery that are meant to tighten the skin. In addition to the skin,what else would you predict is also involved in this type of surgery?
The function of the skin will be totally lost
Suppose that you have scratched a mosquito bite and, in the process, damaged some of yourstratified squamous epithelial cells. What will happen?
The circulatory system
Which of the following is closely associated with the digestive, respiratory, and urinary systems?
The multilobed sacs in the lungs
Which of the following best represents an adaptation to increase surface-to-volume ratio?
Materials such as food, minerals, and oxygen are passed to cells through
Slight fluctuations that are kept within a narrow range
Imagine an invertebrate that lives in an estuary where salinity varies cyclically with the tides. If thisindividual is able to adjust the salt concentration of its body fluids, its salt concentration will have
Is the maintenance of a relatively constant internal state
A negative feedback mechanism
The vertebrate kidney helps to keep the acidity of body fluids constant by varying the amount of hydrogen ions (H+) it secretes into the urine. You can confidently predict that this aspect of kidneyfunction will be controlled by
A homeostatic mechanism based on negative feedback
Which of the following is most likely to be responsible if, when your blood sugar level rises, the level of sugar goes back down?
negative feedback control
Most homeostasis depends on
Blood vessels in the skin dilate
When body temperature is too high, which of the following occurs?
A lack of PTH will cause blood calcium levels to drop to abnormally low levels
Hyperthyroidism treatment in cats usually involves antithyroid medication or the use ofradioactive iodine to destroy the abnormal (overactive) tissue growing in the thyroid gland.Surgery to remove the abnormal tissue is generally not advised, as the surgery could alsoaccidentally destroy parathyroid tissue. The parathyroid gland releases a hormone called PTH thatincreases blood calcium levels. Based on your knowledge of homeostasis, predict why surgery isill-advised
That animal structures are not perfect and that connective tissue can be damaged
The human wrist is very agile, but because of this agility it is also very prone to injuries involvingthe tissue connecting the wrist bones. This statement illustrates
Transplanting unaltered organs
Bioengineering does not involve
Which layer of the skin contains connective tissue?
Vitamin D levels are lower in people who wear sunscreen
Which of the following would be additional evidence that one of the functions of skin is thesynthesis of vitamin D?
Which of the following does not indicate a well-designed study?
the number of cell layers and the shape of the cells
You are looking at a sample of epithelial tissue under a microscope. What would you look for todetermine the type of epithelium you are viewing?
attach bones to muscles or other bones
You are looking at a tissue under a microscope. You see mostly densely packed fibers with somecells scattered throughout. You would predict that the function of this tissue is to
Oxygen will enter the lungs more slowly
If the epithelium that lines the air sacs of your lungs were to gain a layer of cells, which of the following would likely occur?
phospholipid, neuron, nerve tissue, brain, nervous system, human
Structure in the living world is organized into hierarchical levels. Which of the following correctlylists these from least inclusive to most inclusive?
Which part of the figure above shows a complete organ system?
The stuff that makes up the heart
Which part of the figure above shows a tissue?
Which part of the figure above shows an organ?
The stacked one
Which type of epithelial tissue shown is a stratified tissue?
The body must prevent glucose levels from changing even slightly
Based on your understanding of homeostasis, for negative feedback control of blood glucose levelsto function properly
If you hadn't eaten for several hours, which hormone would be responsible for returning yourglucose levels to the set point?
Animals that extract food particles suspended in the surrounding water are called fluid feeders
Which of the following statements regarding animals is false
Most animals are
Breakdown of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb
Digestion is the
During which of the following stages of food processing is undigested material removed from the digestive tract?
Nutrient macromolecules are digested into monomers before absorption
What happens to nutrient macromolecules in an animal's digestive tract?
Through digestion, polysaccharides are broken down into
Through digestion, nucleic acids are broken down into
Which of the following organisms has a gastrovascular cavity?
An alimentary canal
An animal digestive tract that consists of two openings (a mouth and anus) is called
A tube-shaped compartment for the transport, digestion, and absorption of food
An alimentary canal is best defined as
The main function of an earthworm's gizzard is to
Esophagus, crop, stomach, gizzard, intestine, anus
Which of the following choices lists the organs of the bird digestive system in the correct order,from first to last contact with food material?
Reabsorb water and compact wastes
The main function of the hindgut in the grasshopper is to
Nectarivores drink flower nectar that is a sugary sweet liquid. Nectarivores are an example of
Oral cavity, pharnyx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Which of the following correctly lists the order of the parts of the human digestive system, from first to last contact with food matter?
Smooth muscle propels food through the alimentary canal by a process called
Regulation of the passage of food from the stomach is accomplished by
Digestion begins in the
What is the name given to the starch-digesting enzyme secreted by salivary glands?
Human saliva performs all of the following functions except
The tongue does all of the following excep
flap of cartilage that flips down to cover the entry to the trachea during swallowing
The epiglottis is a
It has smooth muscle for peristalsis
The structure of the esophagus fits its function in that
elevate the diaphragm
The Heimlich maneuver is performed to forcibly
Lubricate and protect the stomach lining
The mucus-producing cells that line the stomach
The secretory parietal cells of the stomach are responsible for producing
generation through mitosis of new cells to replace the stomach lining
Which of the following mechanisms helps keep the stomach lining in place despite the destructive force of gastric juice?
The stomach mixes food with secretions of the stomach wall to form
Periodically release chyme into the small intestine in squirts
The function of the sphincter between the stomach and small intestine is to
reflux of chyme from the stomach into the lower esophagus
Heartburn is usually caused by the
a gastric ulcer
When the wall of the stomach cannot protect the organ from the effects of digestion, the result is
Most gastric ulcers are caused by
In the digestive system, most nutrient absorption occurs in the
Epithelial cells lining the intestine have surface projections that increase the rate of nutrientabsorption. These projections are called
To produce digestive enzymes and an alkaline solution
What is the main digestive function of the pancreas?
Which of the following is important in the digestion of lipids?
Lack of exercise and activity can be one of several reasons a person might become constipated, or be unable to have regular bowel movements. Which of the four stages of food processing is directly affected in this situation?
Bile produced in the liver is stored in the ________ before entering the intestine
Which enzyme breaks large polypeptides into smaller polypeptides?
Which of the following nutrients is digested only after it reaches the small intestine?
converts excess glucose to glycogen
Nutrients absorbed by the intestines move directly to the liver, which
Reabsorption of water is a major function of the
Altogether, the body secretes about 7 liters of water into the alimentary canal each day. About what percentage of this water gets reabsorbed?
meat is more difficult ti digest than vegetable matter because of its protein content
Which of the following statements regarding animal digestive systems is false?
an expandable stomach
Lions are not always successful hunters and may go days between meals. What evolutionaryadaptation helps the lion survive periods of famine?
digestion by symbiotic microorganisms
Interestingly, most herbivorous animals do not have the ability to digest the cellulose in plants.However, in the absence of this ability, a mechanism has evolved that allows them to survive despite eating only plant matter, namely,
Which of the following digestive system structures is greatly expanded in size in koalas, resulting in a very large surface area for prokaryotes to digest plant material?
fuel to power body activities
All animals must obtain ________ from outside sources.
Humans store some extra energy in the form of glycogen reserves in the pancreas and spleen
Which of the following statements regarding metabolism is false?
The rate of energy consumption by an animal is called
One or more essential nutrients
Organisms suffering from malnutrition may have a diet deficient in
An essential nutrient
A material that must be ingested in preassembled form because the animal cannot synthesize it is
Those fatty acids that humans are unable to synthesize
Essential fatty acids, which are required in the human diet, are
must be obtained from the food we eat
The essential amino acids
may become protein deficient
Vegetarians who rely upon a single type of plant food
Which of the following vitamins is fat-soluble and, consequently, can be stored in body fat?
They can serve as coenzymes or parts of conenzymes
Which of the following statements regarding vitamins is true?
Sodium, maintaining water balance in cells
Which of the following choices correctly pairs a mineral with one of its major functions in the body?
If a person on a fad diet experiences muscle cramps, a physician would suspect that this individualis likely suffering from a deficiency of
RDA, reccomended dietary allowance
The minimal amount of nutrients needed every day by healthy people to prevent nutrientdeficiencies is called the
When taken by pregnant women, ________ decreases the chance of neural tube defects in infants.
Xerostomia is the scientific name for "dry mouth." Dry mouth can be a medical concern because chronic dry mouth can lead to dental problems as well as problems tasting, chewing, and swallowing. Dry mouth is likely due to an inadequate production of ________.
Which of the following diseases is associated with obesity?
Which of the following is a hormone produced by adipose cells that helps to control appetite?
regularly engaging in exercise in addition to monitoring food intake
Which of the following is widely regarded as a healthy approach to losing weight?
High levels of LDL
Which of the following is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease?
To reduce the risk of cancer, it has been suggested that a diet high in ________ is beneficial.
Polysaccharides are hydrolyzed by pancreatic amylase to maltose, which is then hydrolyzed by maltase to form monosaccharides
Enzymes are required to help digest the four large macromolecules found in the foods we eat.Which of the following is not a true representation of the enzymes that digest these macromolecules?
Television watching is an activity that should be carefully considered when studying factors that may affect adulthood obesity
Scientists have studied the effects of television watching on the metabolic rate of children and itspotential implications for childhood obesity. In a study of 15 obese children and 16 normal weightchildren, it was found that the metabolic rate of all children significantly decreased while watchingtelevision compared to their metabolic rate when they were at normal rest. The drop was greaterfor obese children, but the difference in drops between the two groups of children was notstatistically significant. What is a reasonable conclusion to draw from this study?
Pica is a disorder that is characterized by a desire to consume dirt or clay, both of which containiron. Pica can be associated with an iron deficiency that may cause
Transferring energy from the bonds in food molecules that make that energy more readily available (like ATP) and releasing simple low-energy molecules (like CO2 and H2O) to the environment
Metabolic activities that involve "burning" carbohydrates release energy. When our bodies "burn"carbohydrates, what are we doing?
because vitamin A is fat-soluble
Why would a person not get vitamin A from a salad filled with leafy green vegetables unless the salad also has nuts, cheese, or meat?
Which of the following animals would be most likely to be able to effectively exchange gases when placed in a dry desert environment?
Obtain energy from their food
The reason animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is to
A waste product of respiration is
remove CO2 from the body
When you exhale, you
Release CO2 and take up O2
During gas exchange, body cells
The body structure where gas exchange occurs is called the
Have a high ratio of body surface area to volume
Animals that effectively use their body surface for gas exchange must
Which of the following organisms has a respiratory system that does not require assistance from acirculatory system for gas exchange?
warm salt water
Which of the following is likely to have the lowest concentration of O2?
extract oxygen from the water
The organization of blood and water flow in a fish's gills increases the fish's ability to
they have a large surface area
Which of the following statements about fish gills is true?
it is easy to keep the exchange surface wet
One advantage of gas exchange in water is that
the large surface area of gills would allow dehydration of the animal
Gills are unsuitable for animals living on land because
blood and water flow in opposite directions
In the countercurrent exchange system of fish gills
Terrestrial animals such as insects spend much more energy than aquatic animals to ventilate their respiratory surfaces
Which of the following statements regarding breathing and circulation in insects is false?
The air duct system in a building
The tracheal system of an insect is most like which of the following?
had both gills and lungs
Evolutionary movement of aquatic vertebrates to land involved an intermediate individual that
amphibians, reptiles, and mammals
Evolutionary adaptations for survival on land produced tetrapods, which later evolved into
Which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to its overall body size?
Alveoli, bronchi, bronchioles, trachea, larnyx, pharnyx
Which of the following options correctly lists the direction of carbon dioxide travel as it leaves the body?
Warming inhaled air
Which of the following is a function of the nasal cavities in humans?
What name is given to the sheet of muscle that helps move air in and out of the lungs?
Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across
The ________ is a passageway shared by both food and air
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
Labored breathing, coughing, lung infections, and respiratory failure are characteristics defining
engulf foreign particles
Cigarette smoke can affect the white blood cells that reside in our lungs, whose function is to
The tar in cigarette smoke tends to make alveoli stick together, and coughing separates them
Why do cigarette smokers cough more than nonsmokers?
chemical compounds in the smoke
Cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke cause cancer due to the
The maximum amount of air that a human can inhale and exhale is called the
contraction of the diaphragm and chest muscles
Inhalation in humans is achieved by
The relaxation of the chest muscles and diaphragm
When you are breathing normally, exhalation results mainly from
Compared to the vital capacity, how much air can lungs actually hold?
A flat rectangle with sides measuring 2 inches and 9 inches
Consider an animal that exchanges gases through its skin. Which of the following body shapeswould provide the most surface area for gas exchange?
carbon dioxide and unused oxygen
Air leaving human lungs during exhalation contains
rising carbon dioxide concentration
When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again?
What part of the human brain contains the primary breathing control center?
blood PH and Co2 concentration
Medullary breathing centers directly sense and respond to
In a mammal, blood leaving the lungs goes to
it diffuses from a region of higher partial pressure to a region of lower partial pressure
Oxygen moves from blood into the interstitial fluid and then to body cells because
bound to hemoglobin
Oxygen is mostly transported through the body in which of the following forms?
The oxygen-carrying component in red blood cells is
attached to hemoglobin or as bicarbonate ions
Most CO2 is transported to the lungs in which of the following ways?
The stronger attraction that fetal hemoglobin has for oxygen when compared to adult hemoglobin
Which of the following contributes to gas exchange in the human fetus?
exposure to air
What prompts a newborn baby to start to breathe?
hemoglobin that has a high affinity for oxygen
When bar-headed geese fly at very high altitudes (possibly over Mount Everest!), they breathe very thin air where the partial pressure of oxygen is very low compared to that at sea level. Which of the following adaptions would help the geese efficiently exchange gases when flying at high altitudes?
a human fetus
When bar-headed geese fly at very high altitudes (possibly over Mount Everest!), they breathe verythin air where the partial pressure of oxygen is very low compared to that at sea level. They areable to do this because they have a modified version of the hemoglobin protein. Which of thefollowing is their hemoglobin protein most likely similar to in terms of its ability to bind oxygen?
Instead of flowing to the lungs, blood travels to the rest of the body to support bodily functions
Some crocodiles and turtles have an exceptional ability to divert blood flow through the heart when they are diving and no longer breathing and exchanging gases. Which of the following most likely occurs when these animals dive?
Inhaling carbon dioxide exhaled into the bag will cause carbon dioxide to diffuse back into the blood and react with water to from carbonic acid, and blood pH will decrease
When you hyperventilate (breathe too fast), respiratory alkalosis (elevated blood pH) can occur,which can cause you to faint. A common but potentially dangerous method to reverse respiratoryalkalosis is to hold a paper bag over your mouth and take normal breaths, thereby rebreathing theexhaled air. How might this method reverse respiratory alkalosis?
expansion of the lungs
Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease that is characterized by damage and scarring of lung tissue.This results in the lungs becoming stiff and inelastic. What function is most likely to be impaired insomeone with pulmonary fibrosis?
The flow rate of a gas through a tube is proportional to the diameter of the tube. Through whichstructure in the human respiratory system does air flow the fastest?
Paralyzed cilia can no longer clear the airways of mucus so coughing helps remove it
Cigarette smoking can sometimes lead to development of a "smoker's cough," which results fromparalysis of cilia in the airways. Why would the paralysis of cilia lead to smoker's cough?
The alveoli of a pig
Which respiratory structure likely has the largest surface area for gas exchange to occur?
There is not enough information to answer this question
If the hemoglobin molecules in your red blood cells suddenly were unable to bind carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions, what would happen to your blood pH?
Sometime after a human baby is born, the expression of fetal hemoglobin ceases and the expression of adult hemoglobin begins. Imagine that a baby is born and this switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin does not occur. In which part of the world would this baby be well-adapted to living?
part D (looks like a flower)
Which part of the diagram shows alveoli?
E and D (right side)
At which point(s) in the figure is blood oxygen-rich?
part A (top left)
At which point(s) in the figure below would the blood have the highest concentration of CO2?
A circulatory system is necessary in any animal whose body is too large or too complex for vital chemicals to reach all parts of the body by diffusion
Which of the following statements regarding circulatory systems is true?
transporting nutrients to body cells
Which of the following is a function of the circulatory system?
Open and closed
The two basic types of circulatory systems that have evolved over time are
Lack of distinction between blood and interstitial fluid
Which of the following is characteristic of the circulatory system of arthropods?
You are dissecting a "mystery animal" in biology lab and discover that it has a series of closed blood vessels, a pair of lungs, two atria, and a single ventricle. What animal are you dissecting?
Adaptation to terrestrial life involved major evolutionary changes. The change from gill breathing to lung breathing was accompanied by important changes in the
Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and two heart chambers?
Which of the following animals has a three-chambered heart?
Although birds and mammals descended from different ancestors, they both have afour-chambered heart. This is the result of
the left side of a mammal's heart sends blood to the lungs
Which of the following statements about mammalian circulatory systems is false?
Superior vena cava
In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the ________ just before entering the right atrium.
In mammals, which of the following vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lung back to the heart?
Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the
Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs by the
From the left ventricle, oxygen-rich blood flows through the
The largest blood vessel in the human body is the
During which phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood?
Cardiac output is defined as the volume of blood pumped by a/an ________ each time it contracts.
During ventricular systole, the ________ valves ________.
blood recoiling against the closed valves
Using a stethoscope, you listen to a beating heart and hear "lub-dup, lub-dup." These sounds arecreated by
The location of the heart's pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle called the
relay a signal for the ventricles to contract
The main function of the AV node is to
is the damage or death of cardiac muscle tissue
Myocardial infarction, also called a heart attack,
Which of the following is the cause of more than half of all deaths in the United States?
the amount of oxygen present in the blood
Arteries are distinguished from veins based on all of the following features except
Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls?
In humans, which blood vessels have valves?
Increases, drops, slows
As blood moves away from the heart toward the tissues, the relative size of blood vessels ________,the blood pressure ________, and the velocity of blood flow ________.
veins in the head
In which of the following human blood vessels is the blood pressure lowest?
Which kind of vessel has the lowest blood velocity?
skeletal muscle contractions
Which of the following factors contributes to the flow of blood in veins?
Hypertension is defined as persistent systolic pressure above 120 and/or diastolic above 80
Which of the following statements regarding blood pressure is false?
Which of the following can contribute to high blood pressure?
At any given time, what percentage of the body's capillaries have blood flowing through them?
precapillary sphincters and smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles
Blood flow through capillaries is controlled by
What type of blood vessel is solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid?
a red blood cell
The diameter of a capillary is about the same as that of
pressure-driven flow through clefts between the epithelial cells of the capillary wall
One way that substances move between blood and interstitial fluid is by
the balance between blood pressure and osmotic pressure
Whether there is a net flow of fluid into or out of a capillary at a given point along its length depends upon
The liquid part of blood is called
Cells make up about what percentage of total blood volume?
Plasma proteins are involved in all of the following activities except
Erynthrocytes are shaped like biconcave disks
Which of the following statements about erythrocytes is true?
monocytes and neutrophilis
Which of the following cells are phagocytes?
3 to 4 months
How long do human red blood cells circulate in the blood before they wear out and have to be replaced?
What is the most common cause of anemia?
An adult human's red blood cells are formed in the
Which of the following can increase red blood cell concentration in a unit of blood?
Blood clots are formed by platelets and the plasma protein
threads of fribrin form a firbrin clot
Which of the following statements about blood clotting is true?
can differentiate into all blood cells and platelets
Stem cells found in the red marrow inside bones
Bone marrow stem cells are sometimes used to treat certain blood cell diseases, such as
Sometimes when a person in a movie is stabbed or cut, blood forcefully sprays out of the wound.This is realistic only if the severed vessel is under a high degree of pressure. Which of the following vessels, if severed, would result in the most forceful spray of blood?
it is likely higher than that of an adult human because the seal needs access to more oxygen while diving
Hematocrit is the percentage of red blood cells in the blood. In adult humans, hematocrit is roughly 40-45%, but it can be much higher or lower in other animals. Consider the Weddell seal, a mammalthat can dive and hold its breath underwater for upwards of 80 minutes. What is the hematocritlevel of a Weddell seal, and why?
part c (upper right)
Which part of this figure depicts a pulmonary artery?
AV and SL valves both open, ventricles contracting
Which of the following describes the stage of the cardiac cycle shown?
part B (middle right)
Which part of this figure depicts an arteriole?