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35 terms

Mastering Microbio chap 1

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following are FALSE concerning microbes?
The primary role of microbes on the planet involves causing disease in animals and humans.
How was disproving spontaneous generation associated with developing principles important to microbiology?
Pasteur's experiments with swan-necked flasks supported the concept that microbes in the air were responsible for contaminating nonliving matter. Pasteur created an experiment in which air was allowed to enter the flasks but did not cause contamination of the broth, thereby disproving spontaneous generation.
Which of the following represents the correct format for the scientific name?
Staphylococcus aureus. (Italicized). Scientific names are composed of the genus name, which is capitalized, and the species name, which is always lowercase. The entire scientific name is always underlined or italicized.
Consider an organism that is eukaryotic, found in both unicellular and multicellular forms, may resemble a plant but is not photosynthetic, has chitin in its cell walls, and absorbs organic nutrients from decomposing material in the environment. This organism would be classified as which of the following types of organisms?
Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that are found in both unicellular forms (yeast) and multicellular forms (molds) and absorb nutrition from decomposing organic material.
The observations of Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek documenting the existence of microscopic cells formed the basis of what important theory?
The cell theory stating that all living things are composed of cells. The microscopic observations of cells form the basis of the cell theory and the idea that all living things are composed of cells; cells are the structural and functional unit of living things.
A disease breaks out among sheep in California. A scientist takes blood from the sheep and grows a previously unknown organism. That organism is then injected into a healthy sheep. The healthy sheep becomes sick with the same symptoms as the original sheep and dies. That sheep's blood is then cultured, and the original organism is isolated. This applies the principles of __________.
Koch's postulates. Koch's postulates rely on very specific factors and steps conducted to prove that a particular organism is the cause of a disease: 1. The causative agent must be isolated in every case of the disease. 2. The causative agent must be cultured outside the host. 3. When injected into a healthy, susceptible host, the host must get the disease. 4. The same etiologic agent must be cultured from the once healthy host when it becomes sick.
Which of the following is true about antibiotics?
In some cases, antibiotics are able to kill pathogenic microbes without harming human cells. Because bacterial cells are prokaryotic and rely on different metabolic processes, some antimicrobials can target these cells without harming human eukaryotic cells.
Which of the following is true of microbes?
Gene expression in bacteria is very similar to gene expression in humans, which facilitates the use of bacteria in recombinant biotechnology and gene therapy. Gene expression is similar for all living organisms. Bacteria have a tremendous role in biotechnology and recombinant DNA technology because the DNA is readily accessible for manipulat
All of the following factors contribute to the threat of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) EXCEPT __________.
vaccinations that control epidemiologic spread.
All of the following factors contribute to the threat of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)
1.)increased human exposure to new, unusual infectious agents in areas that are undergoing ecological changes, such as deforestation and construction .
2.)evolutionary changes to existing organisms through genetic changes
3.)spread of known diseases to new geographic regions or populations by modern transportation
Microorganisms are involved in each of the following processes EXCEPT. 1.)smog production. 2.)infection. 3.)O2 production. 4.)food production. 5.)decomposition of organic material.
smog production.
Each of the following organisms would be considered a microbe EXCEPT. 1.)Mushroom. 2.) Protozoan. 3.)Virus. 4.) Yeast. 5.)Bacterium.
Mushroom
The term used to describe a disease-causing microorganism is
pathogen.
Microbes are associated with life-sustaining benefits as well as life-threatening diseases.
true
The formal system for classifying and naming organisms was developed by
Carolus Linnaeus.
A prokaryotic cell may possess each of the following cellular components EXCEPT. Ribosomes. A cell wall. A nucleus. A cell membrane. Flagella.
A nucleus.
Which of the following is NOT associated with viruses?
Organelles.
Protozoan motility structures include
Cilia, flagella, and pseudopods.
Virus are not considered living organisms because they
cannot reproduce by themselves.
A student has obtained a sample of pond water for study. Using the high-power lens, he observes several cells with nuclei. He can conclude that the cells are NOT bacteria.
true
All cells possess a cell wall.
false
The arguments supporting spontaneous generation were finally disproved by
Louis Pasteur.
The microbial process of converting sugars to alcohol is known as
fermentation.
The use of phenol (carbolic acid) as a wound disinfectant was first practiced by
Lister.
In which of the following situations would Kochs postulates be utilized?
determination of the cause of a patients illness in a hospital microbiology lab
Which of the following findings was essential for Edward Jenners vaccination process?
Exposure to a milder disease form may produce immunity.
The first antibiotic to be utilized was
penicillin.
Spontaneous generation refers to living cells arising only from other living cells.
false
Microorganisms are essential to our life. Each of the following is an example of a beneficial function of microorganisms EXCEPT. 1)increased morbidity 2)alternative fuel production 3)agriculture 4)bioremediation 5)gene therapy
1) increased morbidity
Commercial utilization of microbial products has become increasingly popular due to their environmentally friendly nature. Removal of these products from the environment typically utilizes
enzymes.
Normal microbiota are typically found in and on all the following body locations EXCEPT 1)blood 2)upper respiratory system 3)skin 4)mouth 5)colon
1) blood
Development of emerging infectious disease can be a result of all of the following EXCEPT 1)overuse of antibiotics. 2)modern transportation. 3)microbial mutation. 4)use of genetically modified foods. 5)changes in the environment.
4)use of genetically modified foods.
Infectious disease is almost totally eradicated in our world.
false
Bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE or mad cow disease) is caused by a virus.
false.The infectious agent in BSE is believed to be a specific type of misfolded protein called a prion.
All pathogens known to infect humans have been identified at this point in time.
false.