Government 3 test
Terms in this set (104)
Define the term interest group
Organization with common beliefs who try influence/change public policy.
How does interest group differ from a political party?
Nominate & run candidates for office and they tend to have broad philosophies (IG narrow)
What does the theory of pluralism have to do with interest
Theory that public policy derived from group competing for laws/ regs to benefit their members
Differentiate between what Dahl and Truman say about interest groups
Dahl- current representative government is based on IG's
Truman- IG's just a natural consequence of shared concerns
Differentiate between the good and bad of interest groups
Pro- opportunity to support new ideas.
Opportunity for solidarity. Right of association (1st amendment). System is fair because anyone can join, or not
Con- wealthy tend to have moresay. Large corporations tend to have moresay, as well. So many IG's it is hard for government to do its job. Anti- democratic since IG leaders are not elected. Work to benefit a few at a cost to the many
What is an iron triangle?
Three sided network of congress, executive agency and private interest group.
What is an issue network?
Broad array of actors beyond the iron triangle that try to influence policy areas.
Why do people join interest groups? (3)
Differentiate between economic and citizen group
Economic- joined for material incentive
Citizen- required members and dues
What incentives are associated with interest group?
Free rider problem
What is the free rider problem?
Benefit for those not involved
What four methods do interest group use influence policy makers?
What is yellow journalism?
Sensationalism of the news
If we lose newspapers and the AP, where will news come from?
Bad news reports
What are the three sources of news today?
Differentiate between mass media and mass communication
MM- organizations that report on the news events
MC- process by which info is transmitted to general population
What federal agency regulates the media, and what three aspects of the media does it regulate?
Fcc- federal communication commission
Frequencies, context, ownership
What three functions does the media serve in our society?
1. Objective coverage
2. Facilitate public debate
3. Government watchdog
How did early newspapers increase their circulation?
Biggest change came from what?
Non- partisan stories
First radio network in 1926?
What event precipitated the first coast-to-coast broadcast?
Approximately what % of households had a television in 2011?
What were the two big effects that television changed in American politics?
Pres. Dress conferences
What is the #1 news source for most people?
From what program did the internet get started from in the 1970s?
What was the first web-based browser?
What is the "digital divide?"
Most users middle users middle - ages and younger with higher than average intelligence and income
Describe the typical internet user?
Most are middle-aged and younger with higher average intelligence income
What are the 4 benefits of the media?
1. Convenience -always on
2. Currency - up -to - date
3. Depth- still aprop, little known in everything
4. Diversity- something for everyone
Differentiate between the theories about what effect media has on our society
Minimal effects theory
Social learning theory
Minimal effects theory
argues that long term deep seated opinion have more influence on an individual's vote decisions than the media
Social learning theory
Viewers imitate what they see on television through observation. Watch sex and violence
Heavy tv exposure helps develop a persons worldview. Too much exposure to casual sex on tv, cause viewer to worry about too much casual sex in the world
Although hard to gauge effect, concludes that media very influential in guiding public thoughts by being certain events to the attention of the public
Influence how people interpret events and policies
Highlighting some matters, while ignoring others
What does the media need for profits tend to make it do?
Care about market share and will sensationalize to get watchers
What does media coverage of politics focus on?
Character /background or standing in the polls, instead of candidates stance on the issues
What should it focus on?
How does broadcast media try to be fair?
An organization for purpose of accomplishing specific functions
What were max weber 6 characteristics of an effective bureaucracy?
1.Organized along specialized and expertise
2. Air of professionalism
3. Heirarchical chain of command
4. Common set of rules or sop
5. Good record maintenance (paper trail)
6. Merit based hiring protected from politics
Why does every society have an organization?
To create order
What is a bureaucrat?
Specialist in their field
Differentiate between policy implementation and regulations
Policy- process of carrying out the law
Regulations- rules to help bureaucracy implement laws
What is the federal register?
Journal that published that drafts of regulations for federal bureaucracy
What term describe how agencies implement vague or ambiguous laws of congress?
What entity makes the final decision of what is a reasonable interpretation of a law?
If congress is not satisfied with an agency performance, what are it's five options?
1. Initiate hearing and investigations
2. Reduce or eliminate an agency's budget
3. Eliminate the agency
4. Create a new agency and transfer power to that one
5. Refuse to confirm presidential appointments
Before the 20th century, what were the four roles of the US bureaucracy?
1. Diplomacy/war 2. Regulating money 3. Law and order (courts)
4. Running postal service
What were the three original departments of the US government?
State, treasury, and war
What were next three depts?
Interior, agriculture and justice
How much did the federal budget grow from the 1930s to 1960s?
$9 billion to $370 billion
What four strategies shifted power from the federal to state government in the 1980s and 90s?
What are the four TYPES of bureaucratic agencies? Know examples of each.
The 26 cabinet positions overseeing the main organizations of the federal government. Cabinet secretaries are just figureheads, real work done by undersecretaries
Outside cabinet, but chief is appointed
Duty to regulate/ protect consumers. Chief is also appointed by president
Could be contracted out, but derived held by government for security and or secrecy reasons
Approximately how many people work for the federal government?
What are the breakdowns?
2 million civilian employees
1 million us postal employees
1.5 million military personnel
What percent of the presidents hires have to be approved by the US senate?
Differentiate between patronage and civil service
Patronage- Hiring based on who you know
Civil service- government HR Dept, which hired qualified or merit based applicants.
What act protects civil servants from partisan politics?
CS created by Pendleton civil service act in 1883 after death of pres. Garfield and calls for reduction of patronage
What is the paradox between what the general public wants in a Supreme Court justice and what they want the Supreme Court to do?
Justices judge who will follow the law
Supreme Court decision that will help society
What is the basic job of the federal judiciary?
Interpret the law
What are the two main types of law?
What four subfields of law were mentioned?
What are constitutional qualifications for a S.C. Justice?
What is the ultimate power of Supreme Court?
How can congress and president override a decision of the US Supreme Court?
Make an amendment
Know the processes for how the Supreme Court "grants cert"
Does it concern a constitutional questions?
Has the case gone to the highest state?
What is the "rule of four?
Need 4 justices to agree case needs review
What how long does each side get to plead their case in oral arguments?
What kind of written opinions are there?
We use the adversarial method for trails, but what are the two conditions for a guilty verdict?
1. Unanimous vote 12-0
2. Guilty beyond a reasonable doubt
What is the difference between a petit jury and a grand jury?
Petit jury- determine if guilty or not
Grand jury- looks at evidence to determine if a trail is warranted
What precent of cases are handled through a plea bargain?
90% or more
Differentiate between original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction
Original- the court of law which first head the case and tendon verdict
Appellate- all cases that come to the court for review after being tried/reviewed in lower court
Federal judge are nominated and confirmed for life, how are state judges selected?
Only state courts hire, elect and / or appoint their judges
What are the five major influence on who is selected for a federal judgeship?
1. Nominee's ideology
2. Current political environment
3. Judicial experience
What does the solicitor general do?
Us defense attorney
Who is the current solicitor general?
Donald B verrilli jr
Differentiate between judicial restraint and judicial activism
Restraint- following the law as it is written - literal interpretation of the law strict construction
Activism- interpretation of the law based one the needs of society -loose construction (implied powers)
What is our current judicial dilemma?
Provide equal justice under the law while making justice the guardian of liberty
What is the attitudinal model?
Since it correctly predicts how justices will vote on a case 60% of the time
Differentiate between laissez faire economic and Keynesian economic theory
Laissez faire- (French for leave us alone) doctrine that favors minimal intervention from governmental in economy
Keynesian theory- economic doctrine that favors government spending to increase demand in down times and government taxing to decrease demand during boom times
How does "supply- ride economic work and how does it benefit the poor and middle class?
Supply side- argues that suppliers can more effectively influence economy, so government should give tax breaks
With extra cash, suppliers can expand production and make more jobs.
What three things did supply-side economics do for America?
Reduce unemployment and inflation created huge debt
Differentiate between fiscal policy and monetary policy
Fiscal- manipulation of the economy through government spending and taxing (congress)
Monetary- manipulation of the economy through the control of money supple (treasury) and interest rates. (Fed)
According to monetary theory, what are you supposed to do in a good economy?
Decrease money supply and increase interest rates
In a poor one?
Increase money supply and decrease interest rates
What are three problems with monetary policy?
1. Hate to increase interest rates
2. Hate to decrease money supply
3. 6 months for changes to have an affect
What are two major economic problems to watch out for?
Recession / depression (high unemployment) and inflation (High prices)
Who do most people hold responsible for the state of our economy?
How much is our current national debt?
How is a debt different than deficit?
Debt- all the money we own to everyone
Deficit- is the outstanding balance of over spending in a single year
Why are appropriation bills important?
Authorization to release money to varies depts
Know at least four areas of major spending
Military transportation agriculture health/ labor interior environment foreign aid homeland security science
Differentiate between regressive, progressive and proportional taxes.
Regressive- are extra payments that make the poor pay more of their overall income to the government
Progressive- are extra payments that make the wealthy pay more of their overall income to the government
Proportional- policies would be like a flat tax make sure e everyone pays equally with few, if any, exceptions
Differentiate between distributive and redistributive tax policies
redistributive- making sure that some of the excess profits of those on the upper end of the socioeconomic spectrum are used to give a minimum standard of living to the very poor
distributive- policies make sure that government programs benefits everyone equally regardless of socio-economic status
What three areas provide most of the revenue for our federal government?
Individual income taxes
Social insurance and retirement
Corporate income taxes
In what four areas do we spend most of our budget on?