PSYC 315 - Chapter 4 - TAMU (Zimmerman)
Terms in this set (53)
The study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch, and gaze
To express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back
To interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior other people express, such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescensions and kindness
Facial expressions in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion
Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
Nonverbal gestures that have well understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations, such as the OK sign
Drawing meaningful conclusions about another person's personality or skills based on an extremely brief sample of behavior
When it comes to forming impressions, the first traits we perceive in others influence how we view information that we learn about them later
The tendency to stick with an initial judgement even in the face of new information that should prompt us to reconsider
A description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behavior
The inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality
The inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in; the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation
A theory that states that to form an attribution about what causes a person's behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether the behavior occurs
Information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does
Information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
Information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors
The seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention
Two-Step Attribution Process
Analyzing another person's behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution
Explanations for one's successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one's failures that blame external, situational forces
Belief in a Just World
A form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people
Bias Blind Spot
The tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attributional biases in their thinking than we are
Paul Ekman and Walter Friesen traveled to New Guinea to study the meaning of various facial expressions in the primitive South Fore tribe. What major conclusion did they reach?
a. Facial expressions are not universal because they have different meanings in different cultures.
b. The six major emotional expressions appear to be universal.
c. There are nine major emotional expressions.
d. The members of the South Fore used different facial expressions than westerners to express the same emotion.
Which of the following is not one of the six major emotional expressions examined by Ekman and his colleagues in their influential cross-cultural research on perception of emotions?
Darwin's evolutionary perspective on nonverbal communication of emotion led him to predict that facial expressions were
a. specific to particular cultures.
b. related to physiological reactions that proved to be a useful way to respond to a particular type of stimulus.
c. a way to increase but not decrease input through senses such as vision and smell.
d. universal across all animal species.
Tracy and Matsumoso's (2008) research on Olympic athletes indicated that the nonverbal expression of shame was
a. associated with losing for many athletes but not those from highly individualistic cultures such as the United States.
b. different for blind athletes than it was for sighted athletes.
c. difficult to distinguish from the nonverbals associated with pride among athletes from more collectivistic cultures such as Japan.
d. more often displayed rather than hidden by athletes from highly individualistic cultures such as the United States.
Research on eye gaze and perception of facial expression indicates that which of the following tends to be most quickly decoded?
a. An angry face looking right at us
b. An angry face looking away from us
c. A fearful face looking right at us
d. A fearful face with eyes closed
Research indicates that which of the following candidates would be most likely to win a political election?
a. Denise, whose face other people often perceive as indicating a warm personality
b. Theo, who many people believe is gay based only on his facial appearance
c. Vanessa, who has large eyes, a high forehead, and a small, child-like nose
d. Rudy, whose face is usually seen by others as indicating a cold, calculating, and powerful personality
Ambady and colleagues were able to conclude that the thin-sliced impressions formed by their participants were based on meaningful information because
a. their ratings based on 30-second clips were little different than their ratings based on 6-second clips.
b. their ratings of the silent video clips corresponded strongly with the ratings that the instructors received from their actual students at the end of the semester.
c. ratings were similar for silent video clips and for the same video clips when shown with audio.
d. while the thin-sliced video clips were brief, it took participants a relatively long amount of time to come up with ratings of the instructors they viewed.
Asch's (1946) research on person perception provided evidence for which of the following conclusions?
a. There is a primacy effect in social perception.
b. First impressions serve as a filter through which subsequently learned information is interpreted.
c. Even when the content of information conveyed about two individuals remains the same, the order in which we learn it can have a powerful effect on our impression.
d. All of the above.
Belief perseverance can help explain which of the following?
a. Why people who watch news programs that refer to climate change as a hoax remain convinced of that conclusion even in the face of scientific evidence to the contrary.
b. Why during jury deliberations it is easier to convince fellow jurors to change their votes from guilty to not guilty than it is to change their minds in the opposite direction.
c. Why weather forecasters are better at predicting rainfall totals than snowfall totals.
d. All of the above.
Which of the following statements regarding the Camey et al. (2010) power-posing research is true?
a. Standing in a closed posture with one's arms wrapped around one's own torso tends to be a high-power pose.
b. While participants who previously had posed in a high-power posture exhibited evidence of increased testosterone, their self-report responses indicated that they did not feel more powerful after the manipulation.
c. Participants who posed in a high-power posture adopted riskier strategies on a subsequent gambling task.
d. Participants were less willing to adopt low-power poses compared to high-power poses.
All of the following are examples of an internal attribution except for which one?
a. After winning close to $100 playing poker, Fred explains that he's always been a very skilled gambler.
b. Velma blames her poor grade on her biology exam on the idea that she's never been good at taking multiple-choice exams.
c. Daphne thinks that the reason her brother is never able to hold a steady job is that he's lazy and quick to get angry with others.
d. Shaggy says that the only reason for his recent van accident is that the road he was traveling on that day was wet from a recent rainfall.
Although he claims to hate reality television, Simon never misses an episode of Hoarders. Simon's behavior (i.e., watching Hoarders) is
a. high in distinctiveness.
b. low in distinctiveness.
c. low in consensus.
d. low in consistency.
The two-step process of attribution suggests that
a. people first make an internal attribution and then correct for situational influences.
b. people first make an external attribution and then correct for dispositional influences.
c. Americans are less likely than Chinese to commit the fundamental attribution error.
d. if the attribution process is disrupted at either step, no attribution will be made.
Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion based on the Jones and Harris (1967) Castro essay study?
a. When a target's behavior is forced, perceivers do not attribute it to any sort of internal cause.
b. We are less generous with ourselves when making attributions for negative events than we are when others are the actors.
c. We are more likely to make an internal attribution for a chosen action versus a forced action.
d. We are more likely to make an internal attribution when the actor in question is perceptually salient.
Who of the following individuals is most likely to make a self-serving attribution?
a. Rory, a golfer in the very early stages of his career
b. Mariano, a baseball player who has won multiple championships in the past
c. LeBron, a basketball player who has been playing since he was very young
d. Roger, a professional tennis player with over a decade of experience
In Masuda and colleagues' (2008) study of cross-cultural perceptions of emotion,
a. eye-tracking technology is used to demonstrate that American participants spend less time looking at the peripheral individuals surrounding the central figure than do Japanese participants.
b. American participants' perceptions of the central figure's emotional state are significantly influenced by the emotions of the peripheral individual.
c. context has little influence on the social perception processes of the participants.
d. American participants begin by looking at the peripheral individuals before shifting their attention to the central individuals.
Research using fMRI brain scanning technology indicates which of the following?
a. East Asian participants use a greater percentage of their frontal and parietal regions when making judgments than do American participants.
b. Neither East Asian nor American participants are able to overcome their typical, learned ways of attending to (or overlooking) context.
c. Participants from both cultures demonstrate greater activation in higher-order cortical regions when asked to perceive objects in a way that is unusual for them.
d. Social neuroscience data provide no support for the hypothesis that holistic versus analytic thinking styles tend to vary by cultural background.
In Miller's (1984) cross-cultural investigation of attribution style in the United States and India,
a. among young children, Americans were more likely to make external attributions, and Indians were more likely to make internal attributions, but few cultural differences emerged with adult participants.
b. among young children, Americans were more likely to make internal attributions, and Indians were more likely to make external attributions, but few cultural differences emerged with adult participants.
c. few cultural differences emerged with children, but among adults, Americans were more likely to make external attributions, and Indians were more likely to make internal attributions.
d. few cultural differences emerged with young children, but among adults, Americans were more likely to make internal attributions, and Indians were more likely to make external attributions.
Who among the following individuals would you predict would be most likely to make an external attribution for any given behavior observed?
a. A U.S.-born American adult
b. An 8-year-old born and raised in India
c. A Hong Kong Chinese college student who had just been shown images related to Chinese culture
d. A Hong Kong Chinese college student who had just been shown images related to American culture
Whereas individuals in Western cultures tend to think more like ________, individuals in Eastern cultures tend to think more like _________.
a. children; adults
b. psychologists; sociologists
c. personality psychologists; social psychologists
d. introverts; extraverts
What is a major assumption of Kelley's covariation model of attribution?
a. We make quick attributions after observing one instance of someone's behavior.
b. People make causal attributions using cultural schemas.
c. People infer the cause of other's behaviors through introspection.
d. People gather information to make causal attributions rationally and logically.
Which of the following psychological phenomena shows the least cultural variation?
a. self-serving attributions
b. preferences regarding eye contact and personal space
c. anger facial expressions
d. fundamental attribution error
Suppose that Mischa has found that when she sits in the first row of discussion classes, she gets a better participation grade, regardless of how much she actually participates. Her positioning in front of the teacher could have an effect on how large of a role the teacher thinks Mischa has in discussion due to
a. the teacher's use of schemas.
b. perceptual salience.
c. the "what is beautiful is good" schema.
d. the two-step process of attribution.
Which of the following best illustrates the idea of belief perseverance?
a. The first time Lindsay meets Tobias, she is impressed with his intellect and ambition, but quite quickly she comes to sour on him and see him as lazy and ineffectual.
b. Gob is quite smitten with Marta when he first gets together with her, but once they begin an exclusive dating relationship, he feels that he has made a big mistake.
c. Michael's first impression of Anne is a negative one, and even though he comes to observe her in a variety of skills, he remains convinced that she will never amount to very much.
d. Buster was shy and awkward as a young boy and remains much the same now as an adult.
Mr. Rowe and Ms. Dabney meet on a blind date. They get along well until they get into his black convertible to go to a movie. Ms. Dabney is quiet and reserved for the rest of the evening. It turns out that her brother had recently been in a serious accident in the same type of car and seeing it brought up those unwanted emotions. Mr. Rowe assumes that Ms. Dabney has a cold and reserved personality, thereby demonstrating
a. a belief in a just world.
b. the fundamental attribution error.
c. perceptual salience.
d. insufficient justification.
Suppose a certain student, Jake, falls asleep during every chemistry class. Further suppose that Jake is the only one who falls asleep in this class and he falls asleep in all of his other classes. According to Kelley's covariation theory of attribution, how will people explain his behavior?
a. It is due to something unusual about this particular class because his behavior is low in consensus, high in distinctiveness, and high in consistency.
b. Chemistry is really a boring class because Jake's behavior is high in consensus, low in distinctiveness, and high in consistency.
c. It is due to something unusual about Jake because his behavior is low in consensus, low in distinctiveness, and high in consistency.
d. It is due to something peculiar about the circumstances on a particular day because his behavior is high in consensus.
Imagine that you are in Hong Kong reading the morning news and you notice a headline about a double murder that took place overnight. A suspect is in custody. Which of the following headlines is most likely to accompany the story?
a. Dispute over Gambling Debt Ends in Murder
b. Crazed Murderer Slays Two
c. Homicidal Maniac Stalks Innocents
d. Bloodthirsty Mobster Takes Revenge
Ming is from China; Jason is from the United States. Both participate in an experiment in which they take a test, are given feedback, and are told that they did very well. They are then asked to make attributions for their performance. Based on cross-cultural research on the self-serving bias, you would expect that
a. Jason but not Ming will say that he succeeded due to his high ability.
b. neither Ming nor Jason will say that they succeeded due to their high ability.
c. both Ming and Jason will say that they succeeded due to their high ability.
d. Ming but not Jason will say that he succeeded due to his high ability.
Which of the following statements best describes cultural differences in the fundamental attribution error?
a. Members of collectivist cultures rarely make dispositional attributions.
b. Members of Western cultures rarely make dispositional attributions.
c. Members of collectivist cultures are more likely to go beyond dispositional explanations, considering information about the situation as well.
d. Members of Western cultures are more likely to go beyond dispositional explanations, considering information about the situation as well.
It is 10:00am and Jamie, an American college student, is dragging himself to his next class to turn in a paper for which he pulled an all-nighter. Through a haze of exhaustion, on the way to class he sees a student slip and fall down. How would Jamie be most likely to interpret the cause of the student's behavior?
a. Jamie's attribution will most heavily be influenced by his own personality.
b. Given what we know about Jamie's current cognitive capacity and cultural background, he will likely assume that the student fell because he or she was clumsy.
c. Jamie would probably attribute the cause to the situation, such as the fact that it was raining and the sidewalks were slippery.
d. Jamie would be so tired that he would not make any causal attributions.