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Microbiology Chapter 13
Terms in this set (46)
They do not cause death of the host cell the they multiply. They may incorporate their DNA into the host cell's DNA to begin a lysogenic cycle. The phage remains latent or inactive. The prophage can hibernate for many generations before entering the lytic cycle
Phage DNA inserted into the host cell's DNA
area of bacteria that has been killed by bacteria phages.
continuous cell line
when routinely grown in a laboratory. Indefinite number of generations.
primary cell line
derived from tissue slices tend to die out after only a few generations
refers to the spectrum of host cells in which a virus can multiply
Protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus.
The protein coat of a virus that surrounds the nucleic acid.
the time period when whole irons can not be found. It is the time from the end of penetration to the start of release
the time from phage attachment to release
the number of newly synthesized phages from a single infected cell
The process by which material is moved into a eukaryotic cell
The transfer of genes from one cell to another by way of a virus. Random genes are incorporated into the bacteriophage.
Only host genes that are adjacent to the prophage can be transferred to new cells. Lysogenic phages can do transduction Lytic phages don't incorporate into the host DNA.
What stage is found in animal virus replication, but not bacteria?
Are viruses living entities. What is the evidence to support that they are not?
No. Viruses are inert outside living host cells.
How are viruses different from bacteria
They are not living organisms
Describe the different morphological types of capsids
enclosed by an envelope consisting of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Some envelopes are covered by spikes.
What are the spikes used for on enveloped viruses
They are carbohydrate protein complexes that project from the surface of the envelope. Some viruses attach to host cells by spikes.
What are the various methods used to culture viruses
*solid media(plaque method) detects and counts viruses.
How is culturing bacteria different ?
you put them on something they can eat like nutrients. Viruses grow in a particular cell. Growing viruses is harder than growing bacteria.
Basic stages of infection that both bacteriophages as well as animal viruses use to infect the cell.
Lytic cycle: phage causes sis and death of host cell
Lysogenic cycle: DNA incorporated as a prophage into the DNA of host cell
-Attatchement—chance collision, sites on the phage's tail fibers attach to complementary receptor sites on the bacterial cell
-Penetration—phage lysozymes opens a portion of the bacterial cell wall, tail sheath contracts to force the tail core through the cell wall, DNA enters the bacterial cell and the capsid remains outside
-Biosynthesis—Phage DNA is replicated, it produces mRNA coding for protiens necessary for phage multiplication, capsids and proteins are produced.(Eclipse Period)
-Maturation- phage DNA and capsids are assembling into complete viruses(Eclipse Period)
-Release—phage lysozyme breaks down the bacterial cell wall, and the multipled phages are released.
Is the same as lytic cycle, except it inserts itself into bacterial DNA=prophage and duplicates. uses Specialized transduction
How can lysogeny effect the host cell
- Immune to reinfection by the same phage
- Repressore proteins stop transcription of all other phage genes
- Phage may exhibit new properties(phage conversion)
- Bacteria may acquire new genes from previously infected cells
what criteria is used to group viruses into classifications
- Type of nucleic acid—rna, dna, single strand or double strand
- Shape of the capsid or morphology
- Whether or not it has an envelope
Steps for multiplication DNA
Attach, penetrate, engulfed by cell, undoing--gets rid of capsid, goes in nucleus, breaks down DNA in nucleus, early transcription/translation, virus makes it's own DNA, Late transcription and translation produces capsid proteins, maturation and capsid proteins form around DNA.
Steps for multiplication RNA
Attach, penetrate, encode, can't duplicate so it makes something complimentary..
1. contain a single type of nucleic acid either DNA or RNA
2. Contain a protein coat that surrounds the nucleic acid
3. multiply inside living cells by using the synthesizing machinery of the cell
4.Cause the synthesis of specialized structures that can transfer the viral nucleic acid to other cells.
The lysogenic cycle with involve a prophage t or f?
A phage virus can either go through the lysogenic or lytic cycles...t or f?
Order of lysogenic cycle
viral genome integration
viral genome excision
replication and assembly
What will determine a virus will go into the lytic cycle vs lysogenic
health of bacterium
nucleic acid, capsids, and pin
A bacteriophage will go latent t or f?
Phage viruses infect___ animal viruses infect____
Bacteriophage viruses enter the bacterial host through
attachment, prophage integrated into bacterial chromosome, excision of phage DNA, replication of phage DNA and synthesis of proteins, assembly and lysis of bacterium.
DNA is ___ into RNA
transcribed then translated
enter the cytoplasm and use a packaged enzyme to covert themselves to RNA
+RNA enters host cell
uncoating and release, RNA attaches to ribosome, translation of viral RNA into proteins by the ribosome, assembly and release
t or f.. Viruses such as retrovirus's and -RNA create their own enzymes in order to replicate within the host cell
obligate intracellular parasites so they rely completely on a host cell to replicate
viral host relationship
-infect host cell
-hijack cellular machinery to replicate viral proteins
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