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28 terms

AP Human Geography Unit 2 Test

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Five largest countries in the world according to population:
China, India, the US, Indonesia, Brazil
Five smallest countries in the world according to population:
Pitcam Islands, Vatican City, Tokelau, Niue, Falkland Islands
In what regions are the populations most concentrated?
Southern Asia and Europe
How is TFR determined?
the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years
How is NIR determined?
Crude Birth Rate minus Crude Death Rate
How is growth rate determined?
NIR plus migration rate
How is total population measured?
census
Why might an MDC have a higher crude death rate than an LDC?
an MDC will have an aging population, causing more people to die than in a younger population, such as those in LDCs
Overpopulation is
when there are not enough resources in a region to support those who live there
What revolution boosted world population growth 200 years ago?
industrial and medical
What characteristics do countries with high NIR have?
poor, few women's rights, limited education, high birth and death rates, limited medical care
What characteristics do countries with now NIR have?
wealthy, increased women's rights, widespread education, low birth and death rates, medical care
Explain the basic premises of Thomas Malthus' ideas
Malthus believed that populations would eventually outgrow means of subsistence, due mostly to the poor people who can't support the children they have
What do the critics of Malthus say?
resources need to be more equally distributed, the wealthy are at fault, we can solve the problems ourselves using technology
What is dependency ratio?
the number of people over 64 and under 15 compared to the number of working-age people
What are characteristics and examples of countries struggling to maintain population levels?
stage 5 of demographic transition, wealthy, such as Italy, Japan, and France
Stages of demographic transition model
1- high birth and death rates
2- high birth rate, declining death rate
3- declining birth rate, low death rate
4- low birth and death rates
5- declining birth rate, low death rate
What are eugenic population policies?
governments favor some racial sectors over others
What is the purpose of an age-sex/population pyramid?
to show the demographic transition stage and the difference between male and female populations
How would a population pyramid of DT stage one look?
small, rectangular, few people
How would a population pyramid of DT stage two look?
large base, triangular, lots of young people, increasing number of older people
How would a population pyramid of DT stage three look?
triangular, declining number of young people, increasing number of older people
How would a population pyramid of DT stage four look?
rectangular, fairly even numbers of old and young people
What are push and pull factors causing Latinos to immigrate to the US?
push- lack of jobs, poverty, conflict
pull- jobs, money, safety
Refugee
a person escaping a country and crossing a border to leave persecution, poverty, conflict, famine, or natural disaster
Brain Drain
when a large number of talented or educated people leave a region
Ravenstein's major laws:
most migrants move short distances, migrants who move further move to urban areas, urban residents are less migratory than rural ones, young adults are more likely to travel internationally than families, more men cross borders than women, a migration flow produces a counter-flow
Major characteristics of world migration:
poor to rich countries, men look for work then bring families, move to where they know people, more move to urban areas than to rural, main cause is money