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an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation

Universal Manhood Suffrage

policy that every adult male could vote, whether he owned property or not


self-rule; independence


in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans—mainly wealthy landowners and nobles—who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe.


wanted governments to be based on written constitutions & separation of powers; were against divine-right monarchies, the old aristocracy, and established churches; supported natural rights and republican governments.


believe in uniting people who share a common history and culture

Charter of French Liberties

the constitution that Louis XVIII issued after being restored to the throne

Frankfurt Assembly

In Frankfurt, Germany, delegates tried to write a constitution for Germany, ultimately failed


People of African and European descent


A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory


Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class


descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status

February Days

"The revolts in France where workers, students, and radicals rioted and deomonstrator clashed with troops under Louis Philippe"

el Grito de Dolores

Father Hidalgo's speech meaning "The Cry of Dolores," it called for Mexicans to fight for "Independence and Liberty"

June Days

These were the French workers' revolts in June 1848 after the closure of the National Workshops- Violent

Clemens von Metternich

Austria's foreign minister, a prince, who helped orchestrate Austria's role in Europe via the Congress of Vienna

Charles X

the new French ultraroyalist king after louis XVIII

Louis Phillipe

became known as the "citizen king" because he dressed and acted like a member of the middle class. He secretly favored the wealthy. He refused to allow working class citizens more voting rights. He was overthrown in the Revolution of 1848

Louis Napoleon

Was not only the first president of the French Republic (for two terms), but was also the last emperor. As emperor, he was called Napoleon III and he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Louis Kossuth

Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848.

Toussaint L'Ouverture

Haitian patriot and leader of the Haitian Revolution slave rebellion

Miguel Hidalgo

Mexican priest and revolutionary who led a revolt that started the Mexican war of independence.

Jose Morelos

Mexican mestizo priest who fought for wide-ranging reforms- After Hidalgo

Augustin de Iturbide

Becomes dictator of Mexico in 1821. In 1824, he is successfully overthrown by moderate Creoles and Mestizos, and Mexico gains independence as a Republic.

Tupac Amaru

1780, a Mestizo descendent of Inca kings led an Indian rebellion in Peru & demanded an end to forced labor & sales taxes. Spanish put down that rebeliion

Dom Pedro

became the first leader of an independent Brazil

Simon Bolivar

"The Liberator", led many independence movements, Venezuela. "The Liberator"


a person who takes a position in the political center

Revolution of 1830

Louis XVIII dies, heir Charles V, a conservative shuts down newpapers, liberals, makes a law of improper use of Holy Eucharist. result- out of throne

Revolution of 1848

The Year of Revolutions," Revolutions broke out all across Europe for that year, triggered by the French Revolution. They were all subdued, but they had some sort of long lasting effects. The people were probably upset that they were silenced and they had no voice, that's my guess.


give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations

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