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Epidemiology & Biostats:
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Terms in this set (78)
Incidence:
Prevalence:
Attack Rate:
Incidence rate where denominator is limited to people wit a particular identified risk
*think the restaurant example
What is Primary Prevention?
- Stopping someone from getting the disease
- preventing Incidence
*think condoms
What is Point Prevalence?
Prevalence at a particular point in time
What is Period Prevalence?
Prevalence across a span of time
What is Secondary Prevention?
- reducing cases of the disease
- preventing Prevalence
What is Tertiary Prevalence?
- decreasing negative effect of the disease
- "quality of life"
How is the 2x2 table created?
What is Sensitivity?
- a measure of detecting Disease
What is Specificity?
- a measure of identify Healthy
What is PPV?
How believable a positive result is
What is NPV?
How believable a negative result is
What is Accuracy (ACC)?
Overal correctness
If the number of new cases of disease increase what happens to screening test values?
nothing
If the total number of cases of disease increase, what happens to the screening tests?
- no chance to screening test.
*PPV increases, NPV decreases
What are the types of Observational studies?
1. Case report
2. Case series
3. Cross-sectional
4. Case-control
5. Cohort
What are the types of Intervention/Experimental studies?
1. Phases of clinical trials
2. Control group
3. Placebo vs. Standard care
4. Double-blind
5. Crossover
What is a Case Report?
- Simplest form of descriptive study.
- collecting and reporting information about a single patient
- N=1
What is a Case Series?
- Collecting and reporting information about more than one patient with the same disease
What is a Cross Sectional study?
- AKA Prevalence study
- Assesses who has or does not have disease in a define population
- conducted at a single point in time
*- provides only Prevalence
What is a Case Control study?
- Identifies people with disease and a matching group of non-diseased people
- KEY COMPARISON: diseased vs. non-diseased
-*can give evidence only for Causality
*Analysis looks for risk factors in the history of the diseased group that are not found in the history of the non-diseased group
- useful for study of low-frequency conditions. Allows focus on persons with the disease, with non disease only included for comparative purposes
What is a Cohort Study?
- Identifies people with risk factors and compares disease Incidence to Incidence rate in another group of people without those risk factors
- KEY COMPARISON: risk factor vs. no-risk factor
- usually prospective
- *gives assessment of Incidence and Causality
*Analysis compares incidence rates in those who have and do not have risk factor.
- expensive and time consuming research to conduct
What is used to asses Cohort studies?
- Relative Risk (RR)
- Attributable Risk (AR)
- Attributable Risk Percent (AR%)
- Relative Risk Reduction (RRR)
- Number Need to Treat/Harm (NNT/NNH)
What is RR?
What is AR?
What is AR%?
What is RRR?
What is NNT/NNH?
What is used to asses Case-Control studies?
Odds Ratio!
What are the phases a Clinical Trial ?
1. Safety Trial:
- healthy volunteers
2. Best way to use:
- first use of patients
- some hints @ efficacy
3. Main event:
- asses efficacy & AE
- evidence of FDA approval
4. Post Marketing Strategy:
- forever ongoing
- if AE are found drug may be pulled of market of BBW maybe added
What are the ways research can be misleading?
1. Sampling Biases:
- Non-respondant bias
- Ascertainment bias
- Late-look bias
2. Selection Biases:
- Design bias
3. Measurement Biases:
- Leading questions
- Hawthornes effect
- Recall bias
- Observer bias
4. Expectancy Biases:
- Pygmalion effect
5. Lead-Time Bias
6. Proficiency Bias
7. Confounding Bias
What is a
Non-respondent Bias:
- AKA volunteer effect
- Decision to be in a study is a choice. All subjects must be volunteers BUT, people who say "yes" are different from those who say "no"
What is a Ascertainment Bias:
- People w/ severe cases are more likely to come to medical attention
- sample biased toward sicker causes
What is a Late-look Bias?
- People w/ severe disease are less likely to be included in research study
What is Selection Bias AKA Design Bias?
- Different types of people in the treatment and control groups
What is a Leading Question?
- is the pain a stabbing one?
What is the Hawthorne Effect?
- The fact that being observed can/will change behavior
What is Recall Bias?
- When people do not remember clearly what happened in the past
What is Observer Bias?
- Person making assessment perceives things in a certain way based on prior knowledge or experience
What is the Pygmalion Effect?
- Treating subjects so as to induce a result
What is Lead-Time Bias?
- False estimate of the benefits of an intervention
What is Proficiency Bias?
- Interventions or treatments are not applied with equal skill to all research subjects
What is Confounding Bias?
- Some additional variable, not the subject of research interest, produces observed results
- "hidden cause"
*no study is entirely free of confounding biases
How is Combing of Independent Events performed?
*flipping a coin
How is Combining Mutually Exclusive Events performed?
How is the Calculation performed for Non-mutually Exclusive Events?
*Diabetes and Blue eyes
How is Conditional Probability calculated?
Define the Mean:
Define the Median:
Define the Mode:
*Most resistant to outliers
What does a Negatively Skewed Distribution look like?
What does a Positively Skewed Distribution look like?
Define the Range:
What does Regression Toward the Mean, mean?
Define Standard Deviation?
What does a Non-Skewed Distribution look like?
How is a CI calculated?
When interpreting Confidence Intervals (CI) for RR and OR, what is the key rule?
What is a Null Hypothesis?
What is the difference btwn a One-tailed and a Two-tailed Null Hypothesis?
What is a Type 1 alpha error?
What is a Type 2 beta error?
What is Statistical Power?
- Capacity to detect a difference (if there is one)
- AKA ability to make a decision
1-power = Type 2 Error
What things INC Statistical Power?
What does INC statistical Power give you the ability to do?
- Make a decision AKA make sure you detect a difference
When is the only time when we worry about Statistical Power?
What are the 4 types of Scales, that are used to choose the
correct Statistical Test?
1. Nominal/Categorical
2. Ordinal
3. Interval
4. Ratio
What is considered Nominal Data?
What is considered Ordinal Data?
What is considered Interval Data?
What is considered Ratio Data?
What type of Statistical Test is used with 2 Interval Variables?
Pearson Correlation
What Statistical Test is used with 2 Nominal Variables?
Chi-Squared
If 1 Nominal Variable is given and 1 Interval Variable is given what Statistical Test should be used?
If more than two groups exist in the Nominal Variable, what is used as a Statistical Test?
1. T-test
2. ANOVA
Define Reliability:
The Reliability of a measurement technique refers to its reproducibility.
Define Accuracy:
The Accuracy of a measurement technique is the degree to which the average measurement value matches that of the gold standard technique
Define Absolute Risk Reduction
Absolute Risk Reduction, Risk Difference or Absolute Effect is the change in the risk of an outcome of a given treatment or activity in relation to a comparison treatment or activity.
*It is the inverse of the number needed to treat.
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