191 terms

sociology exam 2

sociology study guide for exam 2
Socialization is the process where people
learn the attitudes, values and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.
The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior is known as
From a cultural standpoint, how would one define the Super Bowl game, eating at McDonald's, or using American Sign Language?
American culture
What is a society?
A fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture
a. Is the state of Alaska a society? Why or why not?
Yes, because although they are a part of the United States, they are geographically separated from us.
b. Is the University of Texas basketball team a society? Why or why not?
No, because the basketball team is connected to the college as a whole
c. Is a small tribe on a South Pacific island a society? Why or why not?
Yes, because they participate in a common culture
d. Is the Delta Delta Delta sorority a society? Why or why not?
No, because they are part of the bigger Greek society
e. Is an Amish community in Pennsylvania a society? Why or Why not?
Yes, because they sustain their own lifestyle and participate in a common culture
According to George Murdoch, what is a cultural universal?
Athletic sports, cooking, funeral ceremonies, medicine and sexual restrictions.
Define discovery
Give an example
involves making known or sharing the existence of some aspect of reality.
-the finding of the DNA molecule and the identification of a new moon of Saturn
Define invention
Give an example
results when existing cultural items are combined into a form that did not exist before.
-the bow and arrow, the automobile, the internet, Protestantism, and democracy
Define diffusion
Give an example
refers to the process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society.
-exploration, military conquest, missionary work, the influence of mass media, tourism and the internet
Define innovation
Give an example
The process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
-discovery and invention
Which sociologist coined the phrase "The McDonaldization of society"?
George Ritzer
The concept of the "McDonaldization of society" refers to
the process through which the principles of the fast-food restaurants have come to dominate certain sectors of society, both in the United States and throughout the world.
Which sociologist defined technology as "information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires"?
Gerhard Lenski
What is material culture?
Give an example
Refers to the physical and technological aspects of our daily lives
-food items, houses, factories, and raw materials
What is nonmaterial culture?
Give an example
Refers to the ways of using material objects.
-customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication
What is cultural lag?
Refers to the period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions
An abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture is called
In American society, we often formalize norms into
A law is
governmental social control
Define informal norms
are generally understood but are not precisely recorded.
While attending a religious service, Argyle noisily belches several times and grossly picks his nose. He is violating
an informal norm
Define mores
are norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society, often because they embody the most cherished principles of a people
Define folkways
are norms governing everyday behavior
Give some examples of what might be included under the general heading of "Norms":
Washing your hands before dinner, Thou shalt not kill, and Respect your elders.
List the folkways mentioned in the textbook that reinforce patterns of male dominance in the traditional Buddhist areas of Southeast Asia:
On trains, women do not sleep in upper berths above men. Hospitals that house men on the first floor do not place women patients on the second floor, even on the clotheslines; women's attire is hung lower than that of men.
Under what situations are norms likely to be violated?
When one norm conflicts with another
A Girl Scout works hard on a difficult project, and when she has completed her work, she is given a badge that she can wear on her uniform. This is an example of
a positive formal sanction
A worker is frequently late, takes extended "coffee breaks," and makes numerous mistakes while working on important tasks. As a result of poor performance, the worker is fired. This is an example of
a negative formal sanction.
Give an example of a positive, formal sanction
Salary bonus
In the textbook discussion of surveys of first-year college students over the last 33 years, which value has shown the strongest gain in popularity?
"Being very well-off financially."
A dominant ideology is a
set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
Which sociological perspective(s) believes that the most powerful groups and institutions control wealth, property, and the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media?
Conflict perspective.
A subculture is
a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs, rules, and traditions that differs from the pattern of the larger society
What sociological concept describes professional gamblers, Armenian Americans, teenagers, and nudists?
An argot is a specialized language used by members of a subculture. Nurses and doctors, for example, have developed a language system that is not easily understood by patients but enables medical professionals to communicate more easily (rapidly and precisely) with each other. Which sociological perspective is likely to emphasize the value of this specialized medical language?
Interactionist Perspective
The use of the terms g-man, honey boat, and airmail by New York City sanitation workers is an example of
Armed militia groups, terrorists, and hippies would all be examples of a
Define culture shock
Anyone who feels disoriented, uncertain, out of place, even fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture
A man goes to a urologist who has been recommended by his family physician. When the urologist greets him in the examining room, the man discovers that the urologist is a female, and he is startled that a woman will examine him. He is experiencing
culture shock
The concept of "ethnocentrism" was originally formulated by
Sociologist William Graham Summer
The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or is superior to all others is called
A member of a new church believes that he or she has found the one true way to achieve salvation and that members of other denominations and religions are pagans and will go directly to hell when they die. The sociological term that defines this tendency is called
A United States sociologist receives a grant to study racial and religious prejudice among the peoples of Southeast Asia. The sociologist makes a serious and unbiased effort to evaluate the norms, values, and customs of these Asian peoples in light of the distinctive cultures of which they are a part. This is an example of
cultural relativism
The relative importance of cultural and biological factors in the socialization process is referred to as the debate over______versus nurture
What position would most social scientists take in the nature versus nurture debate?
How they interact with one another.
Social scientists now recognize that it is not enough to care for an infant's physical needs; parents must also concern themselves with children's
social development
Sociobiology is the systematic study of
how biology affects human social behavior
Sociologists define the self as the
distinct identity that sets one apart from others
In forming a sense of ourselves, we imagine how we appear to others and how others perceive us, and finally we develop a feeling about ourselves as a result of these impressions. This sociological approach to the development of a self represents the views of which sociological perspective?
The looking-glass self is the
product of our social interactions with other people.
According to Cooley's concept of the looking-glass self, development of one's self-identity due to misperceptions of how others see us may lead to
a negative self-identity
According to George Herbert Mead, the preparatory stage occurs when
children imitate the people around them.
Gestures, objects, and language that form the basis of human communication are known as
A child begins to "become" a doctor, a parent, a superhero, or a ship captain during the
play stage
Debbie attends her first day of school, and when she returns, she "plays school" with her younger brother. As part of this play activity, Debbie duplicates all of the behaviors that were performed by her teacher during the day. Debbie is in which stage of development according to George Herbert Mead?
Play stage
Which sociologist suggested that during the second stage of development, children become capable of assuming the perspective of another and are thereby able to respond from that imagined viewpoint?
George Herbert Mead
The process of mentally assuming the perspective of another, thereby enabling one to respond from that imagined viewpoint, is known as
Role taking
The child of about 8 or 9 years of age begins to consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously. At this point in development, children grasp not only their own social positions but also those of others around them. Mead calls this stage the
Game stage
A child can respond to numerous members of the social environment, and grasp his or her distinctive social positions, when he or she reaches the____stage
Jessica is playing in a high school field hockey game and passes the ball to Emily, who appears to have a scoring opportunity. Allison's pass suggests that she is aware of her role as a member of a team and that she is now in which stage of development, according to George Herbert Mead?
The game stage
Which term was used by George Herbert Mead to refer to the child's awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole?
Generalized other
An individual is sitting in a large college lecture hall with 300 other students. Although she has the urge to pick her nose, she refrains because she is afraid of how the other members of the audience will react. This person's behavior is being controlled by
generalized other.
"Significant others" is George Herbert Mead's term for
those individuals who are most important in the development of the self.
A child's third grade teacher is an example of a
significant other
Some researchers contend that African American adolescents have indicated that they are
more "peer-oriented" than their White counterparts because of presumed weaknesses in Black families.
Jason is on a first date with Megan, whom he really likes, and he tries to act in a manner that will cause her to like him, too, and to want to go out with him again. This is an example of impression
The______approach is a view of social interaction under which people are examined as if they were theatrical performers
Which sociologist is associated with the concepts of the dramaturgical approach and impression management
Erving Goffman
Rites of passage are
a means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person's status.
A retirement party, a high-school graduation party, and a confirmation party are all examples of
rites of passage.
Life-course theorists suggest socialization
continues through all stages of the life cycle
Anticipatory socialization refers to
the processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships
A young girl decides that she wants to become an Olympic swimmer. She takes swimming lessons, joins
her school's swimming team, reads magazine articles about champion swimmers, and goes to swimming meets at a nearby college. This is an example of
anticipatory socialization
Which term is used to refer to the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life?
A woman who was socialized from infancy to become a wife and mother settles comfortably into being a homemaker in her twenties and early thirties. However, her husband dies suddenly, and the woman finds that she must enter the paid labor force in order to support herself and her two children. This woman will most likely have to undergo a process of
Which sociologist coined the term total institution?
Erving Goffman.
What is an example of a total institution?
Prisons, military, mental hospitals, and convents
What are the characteristic of total institutions?
All aspects of life are conducted in the same place under the control of a single authority. Any activities within the institution are conducted in the company of others in the same circumstances-for example, army recruits or novices in a convent. The authorities devise rules and schedule activities without consulting the participants. All aspects of life within a total institution are designed to fulfill the purpose of the organization. Thus, all activities in the monastery might be centered on prayer and communion with God
When an inmate enters prison and is stripped of his/her clothing and advised from this point on they will only be referred to by number is an example
of a degradation ceremony
Which sociological perspective reminds us that socialization concerning not only masculinity and femininity, but also marriage and parenthood, begins in childhood as a part of family life. Children observe their parents as they express affection, deal with finances, quarrel, complain about in-laws, and so forth.
Interactionists perspective
Which sociological perspective emphasizes that schools in the United States foster competition through built-in systems of rewards and punishments?
Conflict perspective.
As a primary agent of childhood socialization, schools play a critical role in teaching children the values and customs of the larger society. This view of the socialization process is most likely of particular interest to which sociological perspective?
Functionalists perspective
A primitive tribe that cultivates the soil by hand has much more culture than a modern computerized society
Democracy is a good example of an invention.
Wearing two different colored socks and a tie that does not match the shirt with which it is being worn are examples of folkways and informal norms
In a society virtually all citizens follow the same set of norms and values.
From a functionalist perspective, the social significance of the dominant ideology is that a society's most powerful groups and institutions control the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media.
Viewing people's behavior from the perspective of one's own culture is known as cultural relativism
In the early 1900s, Charles Horton Cooley advanced the belief that we learn who we are by interacting with others.
The second stage of development in George Herbert Mead's model is the game stage
The members of your nuclear family, your athletic coach, a teacher in a large lecture hall, and casual acquaintances are all considered as significant others.
Individuality is often lost within total institutions.
Social interaction :
refers to the ways in which people respond to one another.
________is the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships
social structure
Which social scientist created a simulation of prison conditions that illustrated the relationship between social structure and social interaction?
Philip Zimbardo
Philip Zimbardo's study of a simulated prison environment that used college students as prisoners and prison guards demonstrated that a_______can influence the type of social interactions that occur.
social structure
The analysis of how the "definition of the situation" can mold the thinking and personality of the individual is associated with the________ perspective.
William I. Thomas notes that people respond not only to the objective features of a person or situation but also to the meaning that the person or situation has for them. This view represents which sociological perspective?
Interactionist perspective
Which term is used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society?
Jan, Randy, and Terry are science majors, and when they graduate from college, they find jobs as a nurse, a midwife, and a hospital administrator, respectively. These new positions are examples of:
______is a social position "assigned" to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics
ascribed status
A Guatemalan is an example of an_______status.
A National Basketball Association player is an example of an _______status.
A status that is often biological in origin, but is significant mainly because of the social meanings attached to it within a given culture is an________status.
Which sociological perspective is especially interested in ascribed statuses, because they often confer privileges or reflect a person's membership in a subordinate group?
Conflict perspective
An achieved status is a social position attained
by our own efforts.
Everett Hughes' studies of social structure focused on which concept?
master status
A master status is a:
status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position within society.
Mary is 5' 3" tall, a field hockey player who sees little playing time, 21 years old, and an African- American. Which one of her characteristics is most likely her master status?
African American
Which term is used by sociologists to refer to a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status?
social role
Actual performance of a social role_______ from individual to individual
Which term is used to refer to incompatible expectations that arise when the same person holds two or more social position?
role conflict
Elaine is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current students asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session, and Elaine tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that performing therapy with a student potentially could be an example of:
role conflict
A woman in her mid-30s has enrolled in a local community college to earn a degree in horticulture. The night before her first major course examination she is asked by her boss to work several additional hours because they have just received a major order that needs to be processed immediately. This student is experiencing:
role conflict
A group is any number of people with similar
norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis.
The members of your college class is an example of a
We seek out groups to:
establish friendships, to accomplish certain goals, and to fulfill the social roles they have acquired.
A primary group is a small group that is:
characterized by intimate face-to-face association and cooperation.
The members of a neighborhood softball team is an example of a______group.
Which type of group plays a pivotal role in the socialization process and the development of roles and statuses?
primary groups
The members of the United Nations General Assembly is an example of a
secondary group
_____group refers to a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding.
The distinction between "in-groups" and "out-groups" was first made by:
William Graham Sumner
Any group or category to which people feel they belong is called a (an)
A group to which people feel they do not belong is called a (an)
You are taking a Sociology class at Austin Community College. The students at The University of Texas are most likely an
Which sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that "we" and "they" feelings have the positive aspect of promoting in-group solidarity and a sense of belonging?
Functionist Perspective
The destructive consequences of tensions between in-groups and out-groups would be stressed by which sociological perspective(s)?
Conflict perspective
Which term is used by sociologists when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior?
Reference group
A college law enforcement major watches the behavior of television police detectives with great admiration. These detectives could be considered a(n)
reference group.
A woman who has not attended school in 13 years enrolls for classes at the local community college. She is afraid that her younger classmates might not accept her. On the first day of class, she observes the clothing styles of her classmates, and after school she goes shopping and purchases similar clothes. Her classmates could be considered both a(n)______group and a(an)______group.
reference and in-group
Which sociological perspective emphasizes the role of reference groups in setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief?
Funtionist perspective
A social network is:
a series of social relationships that links a person directly to others, and through them, indirectly to still more people
Social networks both_______and______people.
link a person directly to others and indirectly to still people
A group of businesswomen meet on a monthly basis to assist one another in advancing their careers. They give each other job leads and advice, and they invite business leaders to attend their sessions to provide further assistance. This group is an example of
social networking
Members of prestigious law firms often assist their children in obtaining jobs in other law firms or corporations by calling their friends and associates and asking for a favor. This example of networking helps the children of wealthy families maintain the family's high social status. This example of networking best illustrates which sociological perspective?
Conflict perspective
The United States government is an example of a social
social______refers to organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs
Émile Durkheim suggested as society becomes more complex the nature of solidarity becomes more:
The concepts Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft were introduced to sociology by
Ferdinand Tonnies
In a small town in the Midwest, children all attend the same school and most of the community members attend the same church. Everyone in this community knows everyone else, and they have shared numerous experiences with one another. According to Ferdinand Tönnies, this community is characterized by
Ferdinand Tönnies used the term______to refer to communities that are large, impersonal, and often urban, with little commitment to the group or consensus on values
Today, Steve went into a grocery store where a stranger checked out his purchases and another stranger bagged his groceries. Then he went to Wendy's and purchased a hamburger from another stranger, and on his way home he stopped at an intersection where an unknown police officer raised her hand. According to Ferdinand Tönnies, these experiences are all characteristic of:
The process of change and development in human societies that results from cumulative growth in their stores of cultural information is called a (an):
socioculture of evolution
In Gerhard Lenski's view, societal organization is highly dependent on its level of
An analysis of sociocultural evolution that distinguished between pre-industrial and industrial societies was developed by
Gerhard Lenski
A pre-industrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fiber are readily available in order to live is called a (an)_______society.
The Yanomamö, a South American culture, live in a village and spend most of their time searching for food and tending small gardens, in which their primary tool is a stone ax that they use for cutting down trees to expand their gardens. The Yanomamö are an example of a (an):
hunting-and-gathering society
The most technologically advanced form of pre-industrial society, whose members are engaged primarily in the production of food but increase their crop yield through such innovations as the plow, is called a(n):
agrarian society
A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services is called a(n):
industrial society
List three characteristics of the emergence of industrial societies
rely on inventions that facilitate agriculture and industrial production, and on new sources of energy, such as steam. Families and communities could not continue to function as self-sufficient units, and individuals, villages, and regions began to exchange goods and services and to become interdependent
A society whose economic system is engaged in the processing and control of information is called a(n):
postindustrial society
A(n)_____society is primarily concerned with providing services rather than manufacturing goods.
Daniel Bell views post-industrial societies as being positive because he believes that they are characterized by interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment working for the common good. Bell's view represents which sociological perspective?
functionalist perspective
Sociologist_______views the transition from industrial to post-industrial societies as a positive development because he sees a general decline in organized working-class groups and a rise in interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment?
Daniel Bell
A technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images is called a(n)
postmodern society
In the United States, we listen to music imported from Jamaica, eat food that originated in Japan, and watch movies produced in Italy. These are all features of a(n)
postmodern society
Special-purpose groups designed and structured in the interests of maximum efficiency are known as:
formal organization
List three examples of formal organizations:
The United States Postal Service, McDonald's fast food chain and the Boston Pops orchestra.
Formal organizations may vary in:
their size, specificity of goals, and degree of efficiency.
A bureaucracy is a(n):
component of formal organization in which rules and hierarchical ranking are used to achieve efficiency.
Which sociologist emphasized the basic similarity of structure and process found in the otherwise dissimilar enterprises of religion, government, education, and business?
Max Weber
A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated is called a(n)
ideal type
By working at a specific task, people are more likely to become highly skilled and carry out a job with maximum efficiency. This is the rationale for the bureaucratic characteristic of:
Division of Labor
Which sociological perspective might observe the division of labor among the staff members in a hospital emergency room and focus on how the allocation of responsibilities affects their relationships with one another?
Interactionist perspective
The tendency of workers in a bureaucracy to become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems is known as_______incapacity.
As explained in the text, the public attention given the failure of various government intelligence-gathering organizations to detect the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 illustrates which poorly functioning aspect of government bureaucracy?
List the characteristics of bureaucracies, as delineated by Max Weber:
Division of Labor
Hierarchy of Authority
Written Rules and Regulations
Employment Based on Technical Qualifications
A college is run by a board of trustees, which hires a president, who in turn selects vice presidents, and other administrators. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of:
Hierarchy of Authority
Goal displacement is:
refers to overzealous conformity to official regulations
A women and her two children walk into a homeless shelter. They are obviously hungry, dirty, and the children are crying. The shelter attendant refuses them admittance, although there is ample room in the shelter, because the mother does not have the proper identification card. This is an example of
Written Rules and Regulations
The notion that every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence is referred to as
Peter Principle
According to the classical theory of formal organizations, workers are motivated almost entirely by:
economic rewards
Planning based on the human relations approach focuses on:
workers' feelings, frustrations, and emotional need for job satisfaction.
Employees who work full-time or part-time at home rather than in an outside office and who are linked to their supervisors and colleagues through computer terminals, phones, and fax machines are referred to as:
Human relations approach
Which sociological perspective would note that the shift to a virtual office could restrict face-to-face social opportunities and could destroy the trust that is created by "handshake agreements"?
What aspects of work may be increased through telecommuting?
The ability to define social reality clearly reflects a group's power within a society.
In the United States, ascribed statuses of race and gender can function as master statuses that have an important impact on one's potential to achieve a desired professional and social status.
The mass media are an example of a social institution.
The Gesellschaft places a greater emphasis on ascribed statuses than a Gemeinschaft.
A postmodern society is a technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and information on a mass scale
Formal organizations began to emerge as contemporary societies shifted to more advanced forms or technology and their social structures became more complex.
According to Max Weber, bureaucracies would be very similar in efficiency to that of family-run businesses
One of the dysfunctions of the "hierarchy of authority" that is characteristic of bureaucracies is that it leads to goal displacement
A negative consequence of the written rules and regulations of a bureaucracy is that they contribute to feelings of alienation.
Telecommuting may move society further along the continuum from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft