41 terms

Eco test 2


Terms in this set (...)

of all solar radiation entering the atmosphere, ___ goes into heat/ evaporation/wind, ___ is converted into food and other biomass, and ___ is reflected back to space.
a)1%, 69%, 30%
b)45%, 10%, 45%
c)69%, 1%, 30%
d)10%, 45%, 45%
e)30%, 1%, 69%
f)45%, 45%, 10%
A researcher who is interested in the number of individuals in a population of butterflies and also int heir movement patterns would most likely use which of the following methods?

a)area-based counts
b)point sampling
c)line transects
The ____ pathway, which provides high concentrations of CO2 to the calvin cycle, substantially reduces photo-respiration.

a)C3 photosynthetic
Which of the following statements about marginal value theorem is false?

a)It is based on the idea that once an organism finds a productive path, its rate of energy gain decreases and eventually becomes marginal as the forager depletes the food supply.

b)It assumes that a foraging animal will stay in a patch until the rate of energy gain in that patch has declined to the average rate for the habitat.

c)It assumes that the rate of energy gain that an animal recieves by staying in a pathc will reamin constant no matter how long the animal has been in the patch.

d)It predicts that the longer the travel time between food patches, the longer the organism should stay in a patch.
Rhizospheres account for _____% of metabolic activity but make up only ____% of soil volume.
Point or line sampling is a type of ______ used to estimate abundance and distribution.
distance method
The "law of tolerance" was proposed by
Size-number trade offs
Size-number trade-offs are observed within species with parental care.
In soil, bedrock (parent rock material belongs to the
C horizon
Relative vulnerability of organisms at different life stages is true?
Small organisms at early life cycle stages are often vulnerable to predation that larger adults.
Phenotypic plasticity
plasticity can involve physiological responses

in some types of phenotypic plasticity, a single genotype can produce discrete morphs
For which of the following organisms would it be advantageous to allocate more resources to reproduction than to growth?
One with low adult survival rates
Area-based methods often make use of sampling areas of a defined size called
A species of turtle grows for several years before becoming sexually mature. It mates, reproduces, and dies soon afterward. This species of turtle would best be described as.....
Which of the following factors are correct in describing influence on the survivorship of a population?
parental care strategies are influential in population survivor-ship

delayed start of reproductive phase can result in overall net increases in some populations
A population of organisms that display rapid development, early reproduction, and numerous offspring would best described as having _____ type growth and being ______ strategist.
J-shaped growth, r-selection
different clumping patterns can result from
local geographical differences

weather fluctuations

reproductive processes

social interactions
which populatin sampling method is best suited for sessile organisms
area based sampling
which animals show relationship between the outside temp and temp of the three animals is endotherm
animal b only
if body size of an ecotherm with a semi-spherical body shape were to increase considerably, the surface to volume ration would ____ and the animals ability to exchange heat with the environment would ____
decrease, decrease
condition known as pubescence, which referes to the presence of hair on the surface of the leaves
lowers the absorbtion rate of solar radiation
population is defined as
group of interacting individuals of the same species living in a particular area
population dispersion patter is most commonly seen in nature
thermoneutral zone is the range of temperatures in which an active endotherm
is operating at its minimum metabolic rate
not a abiotic factor
density of microbes in the soil
following factors will influence the survivorship of a population
phenotypic plasticity
parental care strategy
population distribution
reproductiv potential
following attribute closely associated with K-selection as compared to r-selection
competition = high
some trees and shrubs, competition amoung seedlings causes individuals to be spaced relatively evenly throughout the habitat. These plants exhibit a ____ type of dispersion pattern
compared to large endotherms, small endotherms require _____ feeding rates, partly because they have a _____ surface area-to-volume ratio
higher, higher
which statements are flase regarding human use of primary productivity
4% of food is oceanic origin but is not expected to increase in future
ecotypes are populations with adaptations to unique environments

with sufficient divergence over the course of time, ecotypes can become seperate species
heat transfer is much more common in plants than animals
evaporative heat loss
generation of oxygen by early photosynthesizing organims alter conditions on early earth
it lead to the creation of the ozone layer, protecting organisms from high-energy UV radiation

it allowed for aerobic respiration
basics of energy
1st law of thermodynamics - energy can not be created or destroyed

energy is defined as the ability to do work

2nd law of thermodynamics aka law of entropy
not a benefit of dispersal
all are advantages
classification schemes or metrics is generally most helpful for comparing life histories across broad ranges of size or taxonomy
charnov's dimensionless ratio
best explains why the mammal families in the philippines are more similar to those in africa than to those in new guinea
continental drift
CAM pathway, CO2 uptake occurs ____ and the calvin cycle occurs _____
at night, during the day
radiant energy from the sun is false?
it can be converted directly to chemical energy by heterotrophs
opening and closing of stomates is controlled by _____ stomate openings primarily affect process of ______
guard cells, transpiration
case study ch 7
a)finding nemo depicted the life of a clown-fish all wrong

b)clownfish don't live in huge families like in finding nemo, usually its between 2-6 fish per anemone and they are un-related.

c)largest fish is breeding female, second is breeding male, all others are juvenile clownfish. When a clownfish baby reaches maturity it is kicked out of the anenome and is forced to find a new family

d)if the breeding female dies, the breeding male goes through SEQUENTIAL HEMAPHRODITISM which is a change in sex during the course of a life cycle.

e) if two fish are close in size then they will fight until one leaves the anemone and the heirarchy is re-established.