139 terms

BIOL1108K Test 5

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dispersal
The movement of individuals or gametes away from their areas of origin or from centers of high population density is called _________.
littoral
Rooted plants are found only in the __________ zone of a lake.
climograph, biomes
A _________ compares annual temperatures and rainfall in different _________.
detritus
Zonation in aquatic zones includes all of the following except the ________ zone.
North Atlantic and North Pacific subtropical gyres all flow in a clockwise direction
Characteristic of surface ocean currents is that the ____________.
It brings oxygen-rich water to the bottom, and nutrient-rich water to the surface.
What is the importance of turnover in temperate lakes?
dispersal
Cattle egrets, originally only found in Africa and southwestern Europe, can now be found in North America, due to which of the following?
estuary
The region that transitions between a river and the sea is called a(n) __________.
limnetic
Terrestrial biomes include all of the following regions except the _________ region.
thermocline
What is a narrow layer of abrupt temperature change in most lakes and the ocean?
eutrophic
The term that describes a lake that is nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor is __________.
intertidal
The region that is periodically submerged between the land and the ocean is called the _________ zone.
the scarcity of rain on the eastern flank and adjacent lowlands compared with the western flank
When people speak of the "rain shadow" of the California Coast Range, they are referring to ___________.
ultraviolet radiation
An abiotic effect that restricts tree growth at high elevations is __________.
the hydrogen bonding in water gives it a high specific heat
Bodies of water tend to moderate climate because __________.
deep ocean currents
Factors that influence global climate patterns include all of the following except _________.
North Atlantic and North Pacific subtropical gyres all flow in a clockwise direction
Characteristic of surface ocean currents is that the ____________.
potential
In a rather infamous case of species transplantation, starlings were introduced into North America from Europe in 1890 by an eccentric Shakespeare fan. Though the actual range of starlings was originally in the eastern hemisphere, it is clear that North America was part of its __________ range.
oceanic pelagic
The region that is characterized by a vast realm of open, blue water is called the _________ zone.
microclimate
A large stone or log that shelters animals from extreme temperatures and moisture is called a(n) _________.
food chains are detritus-based
Below the photic zone of the ocean, __________.
Dry air originating at the equator descends towards earth's surface between 30 N latitude and 30 S latitude
Why are many of the world's deserts located at latitudes between 30°N and 30°S?
oligotrophic
The term that describes a lake that is nutrient-poor and oxygen-rich is __________.
fringe wetlands
________ develop along both along the coasts of lakes, where water flows back and forth because of falling and rising lake levels, and along the coasts of seas, where water flows back and forth because of tidal action
algae and cyanobacteria that also live in the photic zone
Communities that exist in the aphotic zone ultimately depend on food manufactured by chemoautotrophic bacteria or ___________.
The soil is fertile and most grassland has been converted to farmland.
Which choice below describes a feature of grassland that explains why its remnants are concentrated in arid regions of North America and central Asia?
climate
Temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind are the major components of __________.
Ecology
_______ is the scientific study of the interactions of organisms with their environments.
organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, biosphere
What are the 5 levels of the ecological hierarchy of life?
elephants
Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans?
grasses
Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters?
adults
Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively composed of _________.
robins
Which species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual's life span?
tilt
______ causes the seasons.
June
In ______, the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth is tipped toward the sun.
December
In _______, the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth is tipped away from the sun.
December
In _______, the Southern Hemisphere is tipped toward the sun.
June
In _______, the Southern Hemisphere is tipped away from the sun.
tropical forest
Which biome is described below?

-occur in equatorial areas
-warm near round, no freezing
-various rainfall
-most complex
enormous numbers of species
Tropical
_____ means the temperature does not get to freezing.
tropical grassland (savannah)
Which biome is described?

-warm year-round
-have 30-50cm annual rainfall
-experience dramatic seasonal variation
-are dominated by grasses and scattered trees
-mostly inhabited by large grazing mammals and insects
desert
Which biome is described?

-precipitation is low and highly variable, generally less than 30 cm per year
-occur in bands near 30 N and S of the equator, and in the interior of continents
-temperature is variable seasonally and daily
-may be hot or cold
-rain shadows
rain shadow
A _____ is result of an area being blocked by a mountain range that prevents rain from getting to it.
chaparral (Mediterranean)
Which biome is described?

-cool, rainy winters
-hot, dry summers
-vegetation is adapted to periodic fires
temperate grassland
Which biome is described?

-are mostly treeless, except along rivers or streams
-experience precipitation of about 25-75 cm per year, with periodic droughts and cold winters
-In North America have historically been grazed by large bison and pronghorn
temperate broadleaf forest
Which biome is described?

-grow where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large trees
-experience wide-ranging temperatures and high annual precipitation (75-100 cm)
-nearly all have been altered due to agriculture and urban development
Northern coniferous forest
Which biome is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
Northern coniferous forests
Which biome is dominated by cone-bearing evergreens?
taiga
What is another name for a northern coniferous forest?
northern coniferous forest (taiga)
Which biome is characterized by long, cold winters and short, wet summers?
permafrost
______ is continuously frozen subsoil.
Polar ice
Which biome is described below?

-covers land north of the tundra
-much of arctic ocean
-temperature extremely cold year-round and precipitation is very low
-very intertwined with marine biome
Detritus
_______ is dead organic matter that falls from surface water and is an important source of food.
intertidal zone
Which biome is described?

-marine environment where the ocean meets the land
-pounded by waves during high tide
-exposed to the sun and drying winds during low tide
-coral reefs are found in warm tropical waters above the continental shelf
-support a huge diversity of invertebrates and fishes
pelagic zone
Which biome is described?

-open ocean
-supports highly motile animals such as fishes, squids, and marine mammals
-phytoplankton and zooplankton drift here
benthic zone
Which biome is the ocean bottom?
photic zone
Which biome is the top of the pelagic zone where light penetrates?
aphotic zone
Which biome is the bottom of the pelagic zone?
oysters, crabs, fishes
Estuaries provide nursery areas for ______, ______, and ______.
wetlands
_______ are transitional between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
seasonal, year-round
Temperate lakes have a _______ thermocline; tropical lowland lakes have a ________ thermocline.
headwaters
______ are generally cold, clear, turbulent, swift, and oxygen-rich; they are often narrow and rocky.
current
What is the most prominent physical characteristic of streams and rivers?
Downstream waters
________ form rivers and are generally warmer, more turbid, and well oxygenated; they are often wide and meandering and have silty bottoms.
number and distribution of animals
A population can be described by the ________________________.
Population sizes
________, which result from the interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, cause variations in population sizes.
Population ecology
_______ is concerned with the changes in population size and factors that regulate populations over time.
Population density
____________ is the number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume.
clumped
In a _____ dispersal patter, individuals are grouped in patches.
resources are clumped, safety in numbers, cooperative hunting/social structures
Reasons that individuals could be in a clumped dispersal pattern include:
life tables
_______ track survivorship over the lifespan of individuals in a population
Survivorship
______is the chance of an individual in a given population surviving to various ages.
I
Most large mammals have type ____ survivorship.
III
Species that have little or no parental care early on in their life most commonly have type ___ survivorship.
III
Most molluscs, insects, and sea turtles have type ____ survivorship.
exponential population growth, the population growth rate, population size, per capita rate of increase
_____, under ideal conditions, is measured by the equation G=rN, where G=______, N=_______, and r is ________.
limiting factor (carrying capacity)
Populations growing logistically experience a _______(which is also equal to K), and is represented by G=rN((K-N)/K)
S
Populations growing logistically follow a ___ shaped curve.
Intraspecific competition
_______ is competition between individuals of the same species for limited resources. It's a density-dependent factor that limits growth in natural populations.
Boom and bust cycle
_______ is a type of population fluctuation and may be due to food shortages or predator-prey interactions.
demographic transition
The ______ is the shift from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. It has lowered the rate of growth in developed countries.
age structure
The ________ of a population is the proportion of individuals in different age groups and affects the future growth of the population.
pre reproductive, reproductive, post reproductive
The three age groupings of a population are
Population momentum
______ is the continued growth that occurs despite reduced fertility and as a result of girls in the 0-14 age group of a previously expanding population reaching their childbearing years.
ecological footprint
An _______ is an estimate of the amount of land required to provide the raw materials an individual or a nation consumes, including: food, fuel, water, housing, and waste disposal.
territoriality
An antagonistic social interaction used to defend a bounded physical space is called _______.
K-selection
Life history traits that are favored at high population densities are known as ________.
Iteroparity
_________ is reproduction where adults produce offspring over many years.
group of individuals who are the same age
A cohort is ________.
ecological footprint
The concept that summarizes the aggregate land and water area required by each person to produce all resources he or she needs and absorb all waste he or she produces is called the _______.
Semelparity
________ describes an organism that reproduces once in its lifetime.
grow increasingly rapid
Assuming that r has a positive value, in the formula dN/dt=rmaxN (K-N)/K, the factor rN tends to cause the population to _________.
daily temperature change
Which of the following would most likely be an example of a density-independent factor limiting population growth?
a density-independent factor
A particular environmental change causes the deaths of 25 individuals in a herd of 100 wild horses, and it kills 50 individuals in a herd of 200 horses. In this case, the growth of a wild horse population is most likely limited by __________. (Assume that the two herds are found in territories of equal size.)
the size of the brood
Mechanisms of density-dependent selection includes all of the following except ________
Iteroparity
A dog gives birth to three puppies one year. Three years later, she gives birth to six puppies. Which type of life history pattern is characteristic of this organism?
r-selection
Life history traits that are favored in uncrowded environments are known as _________.
logistic
A newly mated queen ant founds a nest in an unoccupied patch of suitable habitat. Assuming that no disasters strike the nest, which of the following types of equations is likely to best describe the population growth of the new colony?
logistically
A population that is growing __________ is always slowed by density-independent factors.
k-selection
Life history traits that are favored at high population densities are known as _________.
The energy cost of reproduction is high, so there are not enough resources to reproduce often, produce many offspring, and take care of them.
Although there are organisms whose life histories fall somewhere between iteroparity and semelparity, life history always represents a trade-off. Why is this?
biological community
A group of populations of different species living close enough to interact is called a __________.
resource partitioning
Similar species can coexist in a community by using _________.
solar radiation
The potential evapotranspiration is determined by __________.
the inferior competitor will be eliminated
When interspecific competition has an outcome called competitive exclusion, _________.
character displacement
_________ is the tendency of characteristics to diverge more in sympatric than in allopatric populations.
removing fish that eat zooplankton
A lake community with four trophic levels suddenly suffers from algal blooms. Using the strategy of biomanipulation, an ecologist may propose __________.
When a nonnative organism is introduced to a community
Under which of the following circumstances would interspecific competition be most obvious?
each existing community changes the environment
Succession of communities occurs because __________.
the rate of species immigration will equal the rate of species extinction
When equilibrium is reached on an island, __________.
its ecological niche
The sum of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment is called __________.
Mullerian mimicry
The poison-arrow frogs Dendrobates of tropical America are all brightly colored and have very similar patterns. Although each species is distasteful to predators and all possess toxic skin secretions, some of the species live quite separate from the others.

The adaptive relationship among these species is best termed __________.
evolutionary history and climate
What are two key factors in species richness equatorial-polar gradients?
Facilitation
________ is an interaction where species have positive effects on the survival and reproduction of other species without necessarily living in the direct and intimate contact of symbiosis
Batesian mimicry
The flower fly resembles a honeybee, but the flower fly has no stinger. This is an example of __________.
Shannon diversity
_________ is used to compare the diversity of communities across time and space.
While dominant species are the most abundant, keystone species exert control through important roles or niches.
What is the key difference between a dominant species and a keystone species?
increased mortality in monkey species B
A species of malaria-carrying mosquito lives in a forest in which two species of monkeys, A and B, coexist. Species A is immune to malaria, but species B is not. The malaria-carrying mosquito is the chief food for a particular kind of bird in the forest.

If all these birds were suddenly eliminated by hunters, which of the following would be an immediately observable consequence?
cryptic coloration
Flounder is a type of fish that looks like the seafloor. This is an example of __________.
Pioneer, Dryas, Alder, and Spruce
The order of the stages of primary succession beginning with glacial retreat as seen at Glacier Bay, Alaska, are ________.
Community
_______ ecology is concerned with factors that influence species composition and distribution of communities and affect community stability.
interspecific
_____________ interactions are relationships with individuals of other species in the community.
Interspecific
______ competition occurs when populations of two different species compete for the same limited resource.
niches
Interspecific competition occurs when the ______ of two populations overlap.
carrying capacity
Competition lowers the _______ of competing populations because the resources used by one population are not available to the other population.
trophic structure
The __________ of a community is a pattern of feeding relationships consisting of several different levels.
species richness and relative abundance
What are the two components that define species diversity?
keystone
A ________ species is a species whose impact on the community is larger than its biomass or abundance indicates. Its niche holds the community in place.
keystone
Sea stars and urchins are examples of ________ species.
Disturbances
_______ are events that damage biological communities.
ecological succession
________ results from colonization by a variety of species, which are replaced by a succession of other species.
Lichens
First organisms that begin primary succession are often organisms like ______.
energy flow
In an ecosystem, ______ moves through the components of an ecosystem.
chemical cycling
_________ is the transfer of materials within the ecosystem.
primary production
________ is the amount of solar energy converted to a chemical energy by an ecosystem's producers for a given area and during a given time period.
biomass
Primary production produces _____, the amount of living organic material in an ecosystem.
10%
Only about _____ of the energy stored at each trophic level is available at the next trophic level.
eutrophication
______ is excessive richness of nutrients in a lake due to a ton of detritus falling down from the land. Causes primary production to increase
phosphate
_____ pollution can lead to eutrophication due to fertilizers, pesticides, runoff, and sewage.
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