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molecular agents derived from fungi and/or bacteria that impede the growth and survival of some other microorganisms

Restriction enzyme

enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence

DNA ligase

an enzyme that binds together disconnected strands of a DNA molecule

Recombinant DNA

DNA created by combining DNA from two or more sources

Genetically modified organisms

organisms that contain DNA from another organism and produce new proteins encoded on the acquired DNA

E. coli

a rod-shaped bacterium native to the intestines of mammals; commonly used in genetics and biotechnology


a tiny circular piece of DNA, usually of caterial origin; often used for recombinant DNA technologies


short for tissue plasminogen activator; one of the first genetically engineered products to be sold; a naturally occuring enzyme that breaks down blood clots and clears blocked blood vessels

Human Genome Project

an international effort to sequence and map all of the DNA on the 23 human chromosomes

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