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writ of mandamus

an extraordinary writ commanding an official to perform a ministerial act that the law recognizes as an absolute duty and not a matter for the official's discretion


the act of coercing someone into government service

Judiciary Act of 1801

a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists

Marbury v. Madison

This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review

Judiciary Act of 1789

established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789)

Louisiana Purchase

territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million

Continental System

Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.

Chesapeake incident

1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.

Embargo Act

signed by thomas jefferson in 1807 - stop export of all american goods and american ships from sailing for foreign ports

Nonintercourse Act

it allowed Americans to carry or trade with all nations except for Britian and France

John Marshall

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by John Adams

Barbary pirates

Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

Napoleon Bonaparte

French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)

Lewis and Clark

Two explorers sent by the president to explore the Louisiana Purchase


Native American woman who served as a guide an interpreter for the Lewis and Clark expedition

Zebulon Pike

Leader of a southern expedition in the Louisiana Territory

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