Engineering

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Feedback loops
Feedback loops are created when reactions affect themselves and can be positive or negative. Consider a thermostat regulating room temperature. This is an example of a negative feedback loop. As the temperature rises, the thermostat turns off the furnace allowing the room to rest at a predetermined temperature. When the temperature falls below that predetermined temperature the furnace reignites to return the room to its equilibrium state. Other examples include body temperature and financial markets.

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Redundancy
We learn from Engineering that critical systems often require backup systems to guarantee a certain level of performance and minimize downtime. These systems are resilient to adverse conditions and if one fails there is spare capacity or a backup system.

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Margin of Safety
basically says that if the part is loaded to the maximum load it should ever see in service, how many more loads of the same force can it withstand before failing. In effect, this is a measure of excess capacity.

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Tight coupling
tight coupling (or tightly coupled) is a type of coupling that describes a system in which hardware and software are not only linked together but are also dependent upon each other. In a tightly coupled system where multiple systems share a workload, the entire system usually would need to be powered down to fix a major hardware problem, not just the single system with the issue.

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Breakpoints
is an intentional stopping or pausing place in a program, put in place for debugging purposes. It is also sometimes simply referred to as a pause.

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