Statistics

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Outliers
an observation point that is distant from other observations. An outlier may be due to variability in the measurement or it may indicate experimental error; the latter are sometimes excluded from the data set.

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.

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Correlation versus Causation
a phrase used in statistics to emphasize that a correlation between two variables does not imply that one causes the other. Many statistical tests calculate correlation between variables. A few go further, using correlation as a basis for testing a hypothesis of a true causal relationship.

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Mean
measure of the central tendency either of a probability distribution or of the random variable characterized by that distribution.

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Median
the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.

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Mode
the value that appears most often in a set of data.

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Distribution
the frequency of various outcomes in a sample.

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