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the idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated an adhered to for life on earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of deity and promise of a comfortable after life.


Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.

universalizing write

a belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope.

ethnic religion (FRQ)

A religion that is particular to one, culturally distinct, group of people. Unlike universalizing religions, adherents of ethnic religions do not actively seek converts through evangelism or missionary work.

caste system***

the strict social segregation of people-specifically in India's Hindu society.


the dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture)


A journey to a sacred place or shrine

scared site***

place or space people infuse with religious meaning

interfaith boundary write

The boundaries between the world's major faiths.

intrafaith boundary write

boundaries within a single major faith


the killing of an entire group or nation of people

sharia laws***

the system of Islamic law


the area where an idea or cultural trait originates

cultural barrier

prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture

religious fundamentalism

religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy

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