Ch 17 Blood

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How is blood unique as a tissue in the human body
it is fluid
What are the two basic components of blood
Formed elements and plasma
What percentage of blood are erythrocytes
45%
What percentage of blood are leukocytes
1%
What percentage of blood is the plasma
55%
What color is oxygenated blood
bright red
What color is un oxygenated blood
dark red to purplish
How much blood is in a healthy man
6 quarts
What are three components of plasma
Nutrients, electrolytes, gases, hormones, plasma proteins, waste products
What are the three most common plasma proteins
albumin, clotting proteins, antibodies
What is it called when the plasma is too acidic
acidosis
What is it called when the plasma is too basic
alkalosis
What is the common term for erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells
What is the abbreviation for red blood cells
RBCs
What is the common term for leukocytes
White Blood Cells
What is the abbreviation for white blood cells
WBCs
What component of plasma clots injuries
platelets
What is the primary function of RBCs
to carry oxygen
What is the name of the oxygen carrying molecule in a RBC
hemoglobin
What is the shape of a RBC
biconcave disk
How do RBCs differ from regular cells
they are anucleate
What is hemoglobin composed of
iron carrying protein
How many oxygen molecules can bind to one hemoglobin molecule
4
What is the name of the disease which causes a loss of oxygen carrying ability of the blood
anemia
What is the name of the disease of the blood which affects black people
Sickle Cell Anemia
What is the name of the disease which causes an abnormal increase in the number of RBCs
polycythemia
What are leukocytes crucial for
the immune system
What do leukocytes respond to
chemicals released by damaged tissues
What conditions do sickle cell patients have to avoid
places with little oxygen
What conditions can polycythemia cause in the body
slowed blood flow and increased blood viscosity
How do we know when a person has leukocytosis?
When the WBC is above 11,000
What commonly causes Leukopenia?
Corticosteroids and anti-cancer agents
What does Leukemia do to the body?
bone marrow becomes cancerous
How do we know if a leukocyte is a Granulocyte?
granules are visible in stained cells
List the five types of leukocytes.
granulocytes, lymphocytes, basophil, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils
What do neutrophils do?
phagocytes at active sites of infection
What is the function of eosinophils?
kill parasitic worms
What is the function of basophils?
releases histomine
What "drug" is commonly found in basophils?
heparine
What is the function of lymphocytes?
immune response
List the two types of lymphocytes?
B and T
Which lymphocyte produces antibodies?
B
Which lymphocyte fights cancer?
T
Why can't RBC's regenerate themselves?
they don't have a nucleus
How often do you replace your entire supply of RBCs?
100-120 days
What is the name of the stem cell that produces blood?
hemocytoblast
What controls the rate of RBC production?
the kidneys
How does the organ that controls RBC production know when they need producing?
when there is a reduction in the oxygen count
What is the medical term for blood production?
hemopoiesis
Define hemostasis.
the desire of the blood to remain the same
What are the three phases of hemostasis?
vascular spasms, platelet plug formation, coagulation
How long does it usually take for blood to clot?
3-6 minutes
Define a thrombus.
a clot in an unbroken blood vessel
Define an embolus.
a thrombus that breaks away and flow freely
What is the name of the condition that older people get where they get bruises easily?
thrombocytosis
What is the name of the disease that causes people to not clot readily.
hemophilia
What type of people did the hemophilia usually affect?
royalty
What does a blood loss of over 30% cause?
shock and death
What is the only way to quickly replace blood?
transfusion
Blood contains ________________ __________________ proteins.
genetically determined
What is a substance that the body recognizes as foreign called?
antigen
What things in the blood recognizes antigens?
antibodies
How do we 'type' blood?
by using antibodies that will cause blood to clot
How many antigens are there?
over 30
What blood groups have the most vigorous transfusion reactions?
Rh and ABO
What are the two blood antigens?
A and B
List the 4 blood types (disregard RH and negatives)
A, B, AB, and O
What is the universal donor
O
What is the universal recipient?
AB
Where did the Rh designation originate?
Rhesus monkeys
Which Rh designation are most Americans carrying
Rh +
What circumstance can cause a dangerous situation in a pregnant mother?
When a mother is Rh- and the father is Rh+
In which child/pregnancy is the Rh danger present?
the second
What preventative modality can be used to stop Rh problems?
Rhogam
What is it that determines blood type in the lab?
Blood samples will coagulate when mixed with the correct antibodies
Where is blood formation in a fetus?
in the liver and spleen
Where is blood formation in an adult?
bone marrow
What causes physiologic jaundice?
when the liver cannot rid the body of hemoglobin breakdown products fast enough
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