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Five-carbon sugar found in DNA nucleotides


Enzyme that adds nucleotides to expose nitrogen bases


substance prepared from killed or weakened microorganisms


Change in genotype of bacteria caused by the presence of foreign genetic material

Double Helix

the shape of DNA; two strands twisted around each other like a winding staircase.


a virus that infects bacteria


enzyme that separates DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the nitrogen bases


The subunits that make up DNA.

complementary base pairs

relationship of two DNA strands to each other.


Able to cause disease.

Base-Pairing rules

describe the arrangment of the nitrogen bases between two DNA strands

DNA Replication

the process by which DNA is copied

replication fork

the area that results after the double helix separates during replication

DNA helicase

open the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the complementary nitrogen bases between the two strands

DNA polymerases

enzymes that move along each ot the DNA strands

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