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parietal peritoneum

lining the internal surface of the abdominopelvic wall

visceral peritoneum

investing viscera (organs)

peritoneal cavity

a potential space, completely closed in males, in females uterine tubes open into the cavity


peritoneal fold that supports the viscera


enclosed by peritoneum and supported by a mesentary or ligament


retroperitoneal, not enclosed by peritoneum and lacking a mesentery or ligament

central regions of the abdomen

epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric

level of transpyloric plane

cuts through the tips of the 9th costal cartilage and the lower border of L-1

intertubercular plane

cuts the body at L-5

divisions of lumbar/aortic nodes

pre-aortic, lateral aortic, retro-aortic

divisions of pre-aortic nodes

coeliac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric

efferents of the pre-aortic nodes

form the intestinal trunks, which enter cisterna chyli

cisterna chyli

elongated lymphatic sac, 5-6 cm long, continuous with thoracic duct

joins the cistera chyli

lumbar (right and left) and intestinal trunks

These organs pass through transpyloric plane

9th costal cartilage, pylorus of stomach, neck of pancreas, hili of the kidneys, duodenaljejunal junction, gall bladder (NPNHDG)

nerve supply to intestine

both sympathetic and parasympathetic

sympathetic nerve supply to foregut

celiac plexus - greater splanchnic nerve (T5-T9), lesser splanchnic nerve (T10-T11)

parasympathetic nerve supply to foregut

Vagus nerve (CN X)

sympathetic nerve supply to midgut

coeliac plexus and superior mesenteric plexus (T11-L1)

parasympathetic supply to midgut

Vagus, both systems distributed through superior mesenteric plexus

sympathetic supply to hindgut

Lumbar sympathetic chain (L1-L2)

parasympathetic supply to hindgut

pelvic splanchnic nerve - nerve originates (S-2,3,4) both thru hypogastric and inferior mesenteric plexus

parasympathetic action

motor to intestine and inhibitory to internal anal sphincter

sympathetic action

vascomotor, but also motor to internal anal sphincter

coeliac artery branches from this

abdominal aorta

celiac artery/trunk to foregut supplies what?

lower end of esophagus, stomach and upper part of duodenum up to the opening of the common bile duct, liver, spleen and greater part of pancreas

immediate branches of celiac artery

left gastric artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery

branches of the left gastric artery

esophageal branches, left gastric artery

branches of common hepatic artery

proper hepatic (right and left), gastroduodenal (right gastroepiploic and superior pancreaticoduodenal), right gastric

branches of splenic artery

short gastric and left gastroepiploic arteries

blood supply to colon

branches from superior mesenteric and interior mesenteric artery

marginal artery

an arcade along the concavity of the colon, formed by anastomosis between the main arteries supplying the colon. Vasa recta arise from here

superior mesenteric artery

artery of the midgut, ventral branch of aorta, supplies all derivatives of midgut (lower part of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, appendix, cecum, ascending and transverse colon and lower half of pancreas

branches of superior mesenteric artery

inferior pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, ileal, ileocolic, right colic, middle colic

superior mesenteric vein

drains blood from small intestine, appendix, cecum, ascending and transverse colon, terminates behind neck of pancreas by joining splenic vein to form portal vein

inferior mesenteric artery

ventral branch of aorta, arises behind third part of duodenum, artery of the hindgut, supplies descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, upper part of anal canal

branches of inferior mesenteric artery

left colic, sigmoid, superior rectal arteries

inferior mesenteric vein

drains blood from rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, terminates in the splenic vein

portal vein

drains blood from abdominal part of alimentary tract, gall bladder, pancreas, spleen and conveys it to the liver.

what happens to portal vein in the liver?

it breaks up into sinusoids which are drained by the hepatic veins to the inferior vena cava

formation of portal vein

union of sup. mesenteric vein and splenic vein behind neck of pancreas, about 8 cm long

termination of portal vein

at the porta hepatis by dividing in to right and left branches, which enters the liver

paired somatic brances of the abdominal aorta

inferior phrenic artery, 4 pairs of lumbar segmental arteries

unpaired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta

celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries

paired arteries to glands of the abdominal aorta

middle suprarenal, renal, gonadal arteries

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