How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

51 terms

Anatomical terms and Anatomy of the Heart

STUDY
PLAY
continuous one way circuit of blood through the blood vessels
Circulation
the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the heart valves, inner layer of the heart wall consisting of epithelium and connective tissue as well as some specialized muscle tissue
Endocardium
the middle muscular layer of the heart wall - the thickest and pumps blood through the vessels
Myocardium
(thin outer layer) serous (watery) membrane attaches to the pericardium
Epicardium
protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
Pericardium
-lightly striated
-have a singular nucleus
-involuntary controlled
-Intercalated disks
-branching of muscle fibers
these fibers are interwoven so that stimulation that causes the contraction of one fiber results in the contraction of a whole group. The intercalated disks and the branching cellular networks allow for the cardic muscles to contract in a coordinated manner
Functions of the Myocardium
system of blood vessels that carries blood between the heart and the lungs
Pulmonary Circuit
Circuit of blood that carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body.
Systemic Circuit
the two upper chambers of the heart. There is a right atrium (which receives unoxygenated blood returning from the body) and a left atrium (which receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs).
Atria
the two lower chambers of the heart, and they pump blood out to the lungs and body.
Ventricles
receives oxygen-poor blood from all tissues, except the lungs, through the superior and inferior venae cavae
Right Atrium
the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk
Right Ventricle
the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
Left Atrium
the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
Left Ventricle
a wall of tissue that separates the left and right sides of the heart
Septum
Pertaining to between the atria., seperates the right and left atrium
Inter-atrial
pertaining to between ventricles, septum
Interventricular
Tricuspid valve - prevents blood from flowing back up into the right atrium when the right ventricle contracts - SYSTOLE
Right AV valve
bicuspid or mitral valve - prevents blood from flowing back upinto the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts - SYSTOLE
Left AV valve
valve with 3 half moon shaped cusps - prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle when the right ventricle relaxes - DIASTOLE
Pulmonary semi-lunar valve
valve with 3 half moon shaped cusps - prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle when the left ventricle relaxes - DIASTOLE
Aortic semilunar valve
the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
Systole
the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood, The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood.
Diastole
atrial systole/ventricular diastole, ventricular systole/atrial diastole, brief complete diastole
Cardiac cycle
the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in a given period of time, Stroke Volume X Heart Rate
Cardiac output
the volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each heartbeat
Stroke Volume
number of beats per minute
Heart Rate
a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat, the heart's pacemaker, located in the wall of the right atrium
sinoatrial node
neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
atrioventricular node
fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
Purkinje fibers
consists of anterior, middle, and posterior divisions that distribute electrical impulse generated by the sa node throughout the right and left atria to the artioventriuclar node
internodal pathways
A heart rhythm initiated by the SA node; a normal rhythm.
Sinus rhythm
abnormally slow heartbeat
Bradycardia
abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
Tachycardia
change in heart rhythm due to respiration
Sinus arrhythmia
originates in an irritable automaticity focus that fires spontaneously, producing a beat earlier than expected in the rhythm
Premature beat
an abnormal sound of the heart
Murmur
a bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract
Bundle of his
the ability to respond to demands (exercise, stress, hypovolemia) by altering cardiac output threefold or fourfold.
Cardiac Reserve
Bundle of His
AV bundle
Visceral Pericardium
Epicardium
Parietal - Pericardium Cavity - Visceral Pericardium
Serous Pericaridum
supplies blood to the muscles of the heart to meet the high oxygen and nutrient demands of the cardiac muscle cells - blood vessels that supply the heart
Coronary Circulation
the vessel that drains blood from the heart muscle tissues into the right atrium
Coronary Sinus
is an average time of a cardiac cycle
0.8 seconds
a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body
stethoscope
process of recording the electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiography
a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound to study to structure and motions of the heart
echocardiography
n this test a long, thin tube is inserted into the patient's body to inject a special dye, which can show narrowed areas in arteries due to plaque buildup and find other problems.
catheterization
sound is caused by the closure of the atrioventicular valves
lub sound
sound is caused by the closure of the semilunar valves
dub sound