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364 terms

Psych Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
Our differences as humans include our, ____, ___ and ___ and ____ backgrounds.
personalities
interests
cultural
family
Our similarities as human beings include our common ____, our shared ____ architecture, our ability to use ____, and our ____ behaviors.
biological heritage
brain
language
social
A fundamental question in psychology deals with the extent to which we are shaped by our heredity, called our ____, and by external influences, called our ____.
nature
nurture
Researchers who specifically study genetic and environmental influences on behavior are called ____.
behavior geneticists
The term environment refers to every ____ influence.
nongenetic
The master plans for development are stored in the ___. In number, each person inherits ____ of these structures, ____ from each parent. Each is composed of a coiled chain of the molecule ____.
chromosomes
46
23
DNA
If chromosomes are the "chapters" of heredity, the "words" that make each of us a distinctive human being are called ____.
genes
The complete instructions for making an organism are referred to as the human ____.
genome
To study they power and limits of genetic influences on behavior, researchers use ____ and ____ studies.
twin
adoption
Twins who developed from a single egg are genetically ____. Twins who developed from different fertilized eggs are no more genetically alike than siblings and are called ____ twins.
identical
fraternal
In terms of the personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism, identical twins are _____ alike than are fraternal twins.
more
Twin pairs reported ____. However their similarities ____ be attributed to how they were treated.
being treated alike
could not
Through research on identical twins raised apart, psychologists are able to study the influence of the ____.
environment
Studies tend to show that the personalities of adopted children _____ closely resemble those of their adoptive parents. However, adoptions studies show that parenting ____ matter. For example, many adopted children score ___ than their biological parents on intelligence tests.
do not
does
higher
The term that refers to the inborn personality, especially the child's emotional excitability, is ____, which ___ endure over time.
temperament
does
From the first weeks of life, ___ babies are more ____, ____, and ____. In contrast, ___ babies are ____, ____, and ____ in feeding and sleeping. Faced with a new or strange situation, anxious infants become ____ physiologically aroused than less excitable infants.
difficult
irritable
intense
unpredictable
easy
cheerful
relaxed
predictable
more
The extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to differing genes is called ____. Heritable individual differences ____ heritable group differences.
heritability
do not necessarily imply
Genes are self-___; rather than acting as ___ that always lead to the same result, they ___ to the environmental context.
regulating
blueprints
react
For ____ phenomena, human differences are nearly always the result of both __ and ___ influences.
psychological
genetic
environmental
Throughout life, we are the product of the ___ of our ___ predispositions and our surrounding ____.
interaction
genetic
environment
Environments trigger activity in ____ and our genetically influenced traits evoke ____ in other people. This may explain why ____ twins recall greater variations in their early family life than do ____ twins.
genes
responses
fraternal
identical
The subfield of biology that seeks to identify some of the many genes that influence normal human traits is ___.
molecular genetics
Researchers who study natural selection and the adaptive nature of human behavior are called ___.
evolutionary psychologists
Researchers in this field focus mostly on what makes people so ____.
much alike
According to the principle of ___, traits that lead to increased reproduction and survival will be most likely to be passed on to succeeding generations.
natural selection
Genetic ____ are random errors in genetic replication that are the source of all genetic ___.
mutations
diversity
Genetic constraints on human behavior are generally ___ than those on animal behavior. The human species' ability to ___ and therefore to ___ in responding to different ___ contributes to our ____, defined as our ability to ___ and ___. Because of our genetic legacy, we love the tastes of sweets and ____, which we tend to ___, even though famine is unlikely in industrialized societies.
looser
learn
adapt
environments
fitness
survive
reproduce
fats
store
The characteristics by which people define male and female constitute ___. These characteristics are subject to ___ and ___ influences.
gender
biological
social
Compared to females, males are ___ likely to engage in casual, impulsive sex and they are ___ likely to initiate sexual activity. This is an example of a ____ difference.
more
more
gender
The ____ explanation of gender differences in attitudes toward sex is based on differences in the optimal strategy by which women and men pass on their ___. According to this view, males and females ___ selected for different patterns of sexuality.
evolutionary
genes
are
Cross-cultural research reveals that men judge women as more attractive if they have a ___ appearance, whereas women judge men who appear ____, ___, and ____ as more attractive.
youthful
mature
dominant
bold
affluent
Critics of the evolutionary explanation of the gender sexuality difference argue that it often works ____ to propose a ____ explanation.
backward
hindsight
Another critique is that gender differences in sexuality vary with ___ expectations. Gender differences in mate preferences are largest in cultures characterized by greater gender ____.
social
inequality
Evolutionary psychologists counter the criticisms by noting that the sexes, having faced similar adaptive problems, are more ___ that they are ___. They also note that evolutionary principles offer testable ____.
alike
different
predictions
Environmental influences begin during the period of ___ development.
prenatal
Rosenzweig and Krech discovered that rats raised from a young age in enriched environments had ___ brain cortexes than animals raised in isolation.
thicker
Experience shapes the brain by preserving activated ____ connections and allowing unused connections to ____. This process, called ____, results in a massive loss of unused connections by ____.
neural
degenerate
pruning
puberty
The idea that parents shape their children's futures come from ___ and ___.
Freudian psychiatry
psychology
Parents do influence some areas of their children's lives, such as their ____, ____, and ____.
political attitudes
personal manners
religious beliefs
In areas such as ____, the environment siblings share at home accounts for less than ____ percent of their differences.
personality
10
Experiences with ___ have a powerful effect on how children develop, partly as a result of a ____ effect by which kids seek our others with similar attitudes and interests.
peers
selction
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions of a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next defines the group's ____.
culture
One landmark of human culture is the preservation of ___, which is derived from our mastery of ____, so that we can pass it on to future generations. Culture also enables an efficient division of ____.
innovation
language
labor
All cultural groups evolve their own rules for expected behavior, called ____.
norms
One such rule involves the buffer zone that people maintain around their bodies, called ____.
personal space
The speed at which culture changes is much ___ than the pace of evolutionary changes in the human ____.
faster
gene pool
Cultures based on ____ value personal ____ and individual ____. Examples of such cultures occur in ___, ____, ____, and ____.
individualism
independence (or control)
achievement
North America
Western Europe
Australia
New Zealand
In contrast, cultures based on ____ value ____, ____, and ____. Examples of such cultures occur in ____, ____, and ____.
collectivism
interdependence
tradition
harmony
Korea
Japan
China
Whereas people in ___ cultures value freedom, they suffer more ____, divorce, ___ and ____-related disease.
individualist
loneliness
homicide
stress
Whereas most Western parents place more emphasis on ____ in their children, many Asian and African parents focus on cultivating ____.
independence
emotional closeness
Children in collectivist cultures grow up with a strong sense of ____, a sense that what shames or honors the person also shames or honors the family.
family self
In general, differences between groups are ____ than person-to-person differences within groups.
smaller
Among your ____ chromosomes, ____ are unisex.
46
45
Compared with the average man, an average woman has more ____, less ___ and is a few inches ____. Women are more likely than men to suffer from ___, ____, and ____.
fat
muscle
shorter
depression
anxiety
eating disorders
Compare with women, men are more likely to commit ___ and to suffer ____. They are also more likely to be diagnosed with ___, ____, ____, and ____.
suicide
alcohol dependence
autism
color-blindness
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
antisocial personality disorder
Aggression is defined as ____ or ____ behavior that is ____ to hurt someone.
physical
verbal
intended
Throughout the world, men are more likely than women to engage in ___, ____, and ____.
hunting
fighting
warring
The aggression gender gap pertains to ____ rather than ____ aggression.
physical
verbal
Compared with women, men are perceived as being more ____, ____, and ____. As leaders, they tend to be more ____, while women are more ____.
dominant
forceful
independent
directive (or autocratic)
democratic
Compared with men, women are perceived as being more ___, ___, and ____.
deferential
nurturant
affiliative
These perceived differences occur ____.
throughout the world
According to Carol Gilligan, women are more concerned than men in making ____ with others.
connections
This difference is notable in how children ____, and it continues throughout the teen and adult years. Girls play in groups that are ___ and less ____ than boys' groups.
play
smaller
competitive
Because they are more ____, women are likely to use conversation to ____, while men are likely to use conversation to ____.
interdependent
explore relationships
communicate solutions
Women tend an befriend--for example, they turn to others for ____, especially when coping with ____.
support
stress
Gender differences in power, connectedness, and other traits peak in late ___ and early ___. By age 50, the differences have ____.
adolescence
adulthood
decreased
The 23rd pair of chromosomes determines the developing person's ____. The mother always contribures a(n) ____ chromosome. When the father contributes a(n) ____ chromosome, the testes begin producing the hormone ____. In about the ____, this hormones initiates the development of external male sex organs.
sex
X
Y
testosterone
seventh
Sex chromosomes control ___ that influence the brain's wiring. In adulthood, part of the ___ lobe, an area involved in ___ fluency, is thicker in women. Part of the brain's ____ cortex, a key area for ____ perception, is thicker in men.
hormones
frontal
verbal
parietal
space
Our expectations about the way men and women behave define our culture's ____.
gender roles
Gender roles ____ rigidly fixed by evolution, as evidenced by the fact that they vary across ____ and over ____. For instance, in ____ societies there tends to be minimal division of labor by sex; by contrast, in ____ societies, women remain close to home while men roam freely, herding cattle or sheep.
are not
cultures
time
nomadic
agricultural
Our individual sense of being male or female is called our ____. The degree to which we exhibit traditionally male or female traits and interests is called ____.
gender identity
gender typing
According to ____ theory, children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating others and being rewarded or punished. When their families discourage traditional gender typing, children ____ organize themselves into "boy worlds" and "girl worlds."
social learning
do
Children also learn from their ___ what it means to be male or female and adjust their behavior accordingly, thereby demonstrating that ____ is important in the formation of gender identity.
gender schemes
cognition
As brute strength becomes ____ relevant to power and status, gender roles are ____.
less
converging
We are the product of both ____ and ____, but we are also a system that is ____. we know this because a ____ approach to development shows that no single factor is all-powerful.
nature
nurture
open
biopsychosocial
The principle that we should prefer the simplest of competing explanations for a phenomenon is called ___.
Occam's razor
X chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both women and men
norm
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
fraternal
twins that develop from separate eggs
genes
the biochemical units of heredity
DNA
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
identical
twins that develop from a single egg
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in men
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and females
gender identity
one;s personal sense of being female or male
gender typing
the acquisition of a traditional gender role
environment
non genetic influences
testosterone
principle male sex hormone. During prenatal development, testosterone stimulates the development of the external male sex organs
social learning theory
people learn social behavior (such as gender roles) by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
natural selection
the evolutionary principle that traits lead to increased reproduction and survival are the most likely to be passed on to succeeding generations
Scientists who study physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the life cycle are called ___.
developmental psychologists
One of the major issues in developmental psychology concerns the relative importance of genetic inheritance and experience in determining behavior; this is called the ____ issue.
nature/nurture
A second developmental issue concerns whether developmental changes are gradual or abrupt; this called the ____.
continuity/stages
A third controversial issue concerns the consistency of personality and whether development is characterized more by ____ over time or by change.
stability
Conception begins when a woman's ___ releases a mature ____.
ovary
egg
The few ___ from the man that reach the egg release digestive ____ that eat away the egg's protective covering. As soon as one sperm penetrates the egg, the egg's surface ___ all other sperm.
sperm
enzymes
blocks
The egg and sperm ____ fuse and become one.
nuclei
Fertilized human eggs are called ____. During the first week, the cells in this cluster begin to ___. The outer part of the fertilized egg attaches to the ____ wall.
zygotes
differentiate
uterine
From about 2 until 8 weeks of age the developing human, formed from the inner cells of the fertilized egg, is called a(n) ____. During the final stage of prenatal development, the developing human is called a(n) ____.
embryo
fetus
Formed as the zygote attached to the uterus, the ____ transfers ____ and ____ from mother to fetus. Along with nutrients, a range of harmful substances known as ____ can pass through the placenta.
placenta
nutrients
oxygen
teratogens
Moderate consumption of alcohol during pregnancy ___ the fetal brain. If a mother drinks heavily, her baby is at risk for the birth defects and mental retardation that accompany ____.
can affect
fetal alcohol syndrome
When an infant's cheek is touched, it will vigorously ___ for a nipple. Other infant reflexes include ___, ____, ____, and ____.
root
sucking
swallowing
tonguing
breathing
American psychologist ____ believed that the newborn experiences a "blooming, buzzing confusion." This belief is ____.
William James
incorrect
To study infants' thinking, developmental researchers have focused on a simple form of learning called ____, which involves a ____ in responding with repeated stimulation. Using the ____ procedure, researchers have found that infants prefer sights, such as faces, that facilitate ___ responsiveness.
habituation
decrease
novelty-preference
social
The developing brain ___ produces neurons. At birth, the human nervous system ___ fully mature.
over
is not
Between 3 and 6 years of age, the brain is developing most rapidly in the ___ lobes, which enable ___. The last areas of the brain to develop are the ____ linked with ____, ____ and ____.
frontal
rational planning
association areas
thinking
memory
language
After puberty, a process of ___ shuts down some neural connections and strengthens others.
pruning
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior are called ____.
maturation
Infants pass the milestones of ___ development at different rates, but the basic ____ of stages is fixed. Infants sit before they ___ and walk before they ____.
motor
sequence
crawl
run
Genes play a ___ role in motor development.
major
Until the necessary muscular and neural maturation is complete, including the rapid development of the brain's ____, experience has a ___ effect on learning to walk, for example.
cerebellum
small
Our earliest memories generally do not occur before age ____.
This phenomenon has been called ____.
3
infantile amnesia
Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with ___, ___, ___ and ____.
thinking
knowing
remembering
communicating
The first researcher to show that the thought processes of adults and children are very different was ____.
Piaget
To organize and interpret his or her experiences, the developing child constructs cognitive concepts called ____.
schemas
The interpretation of new experiences in terms of existing ideas is called ____. The adaption of existing ideas to fit new experience is called ____.
assimilation
accommodation
In Piaget's first stage of development, the ____ stage, children experience the world through their motor and sensory interactions with objects. THis stage occurs between infancy and nearly age ____.
sensorimotor
2
The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are removed from view is called ____. This awareness begins to develop at about ___ month of age.
object permanence
8
Developmental researchers have found that Piaget and his followers ___ young children's competence. For instance, babies have an intuitive grasp of simple laws of ___, as Sarah Shuwairi showed, and an understanding of ____, as Karen Wynn demonstrated.
underestimated
physics
numbers
According to Piaget, during the preschool years and up to age ___, children are in the ___ stage.
6 or 7
preoperational
The principle that the quantity of a substance remains the same even when the shape of its container changes is called ___. Piaget believed that preschoolers ___ developed this concept.
conservation
have not
Preschoolers have difficulty in perceiving things from another person's point of view. This inability is called ____.
egocentrism
The child's growing ability to take another's perspective is evidence that the child is acquiring a ____. Between about 3 1/2 and 4 1/2 children come to realize that other may hold ____.
theory of mind
false beliefs
The disorder characterized by deficient ___ and ___ interaction and an impaired ____ is ____. This disorder is related to malfunction of brain areas that allow us to take another's ___. The "high functioning" form of this disorder is called ____.
communication
social
theory of mind
autism
viewpoint
Asperger syndrome
Baron-Cohen's theory proposes that autism represents an "extreme ____ brain." According to this theory, girls tend to be ___, who are better than boys at reading facial expressions and gestures. Boys tend to be ____, who understand things in terms of rules or laws.
male
empathizers
systemizers
In contrast to Piaget's findings to perform mental ____, to think ____, and to take another's ___ begin to show up early and continue to develop ____.
operations
symbolically
perspective
gradually
Russian psychologist ____ noted that by age ___ children stop thinking aloud and instead rely on ____. Talking to themselves helps children control their ___ and ___ and master new skills.
Lev Vygotsky
7
inner speech
behavior
emotions
Piaget believed that children acquire the mental abilities needed to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation by about ___ years of age. At this time, they enter the ____ stage.
6 or 7
concrete operational
In Piaget's final stage, the ____ stage, reasoning expands from the purely conccrete to encompass ___ thinking. Piaget believed most children begin to enter this stage by age ___.
formal operational
abstract
12
Complementing Piaget's emphasis on interaction with the ____ environment is Vygotsky's emphasis on interaction with the ____ environment. When parents mentor children and give them new words, they provide, according to Vygotsky, a ____ upon which the child can build higher-level thinking.
physical
social
scaffold
Soon after ____ emerges and children become mobile, a new fear called, called ____ emerges.
The fear emerges at about age ___.
object permanence
stranger anxiety
8 months
The development of a strong emotional bond between infant and parent is called ____.
attachment
The Harlow's studies of monkeys have shown that mother-infant attachment does not depend on the mother providing nourishment as much as it does on her providing the comfort of ____. Another key to attachment is ____.
body contact
familiarity
Human attachment involves one person providing another with a ____ when distressed and a ____ from which to explore.
safe haven
secure base
In some animals, attachment will occur only during a restricted time called a ____. Konrad Lorenz discovered that young birds would follow almost any object if it were the first moving thing they observed. This phenomenon is called ____.
critical period
imprinting
Human infants ____ have a precise critical period for becoming attached. However because of ____ they attach to what they know.
do not
mere exposure
Placed in a research setting called the ____, children show one of two patterns of ____ attachment or ____ attachment.
strange situation
secure
insecure
A father's love and acceptance for his children are ____ to a mother's love in predicting their children's health and well-being.
comparable to
Separation anxiety peaks in infants around ___ months, then ____. This is true of children ____.
13
gradually declines
throughout the world
According to Erikson, securely attached infants approach life with a sense of ____.
basic trust
Most researchers now believe that early attachments ____ form the basis of adult attachments. Attachment style is also associated with ____: Securely attached people exhibit greater drive to achieve.
do
motivation
The Harlows found that when monkeys reared in social isolation were placed with other monkeys, they reacted with either fear or ___.
aggression
Most abused children ___ later become abusive parents.
do not
Although most children who grow up under adversity are ___ and become normal adults, early abuse and excessive exposure to ____ may alter the development of the brain chemical ____.
resilient
stress hormones
serotonin
When placed in a more positive and stable environment, most infants ____ from disruptions in attachment.
recover
Experts agree that child care ____ per se constitute a risk factor in children's development. High-quality child care consists of warm, supportive interactions with adults in an environment that is ___, ___, and ___. More important than time spent in day care in influencing a child's development are ____.
does not
safe
healthy
stimulating
the mother's sensitivity, the child's temperament, and the family's economic and educational level
The primary social achievement of childhood is the development of a ____ which occurs in most children by age ____.
self concept
12
A child's self image generally becomes stable between the ages of ____ and ____, when children begin to describe themselves in terms of gender, group memberships, and psychological ____.
8
10
traits
Parents who impose rules and expect obedience are exhibiting a(n) ____ style of parenting.
authoritarian
Parents who make few demands of their children and tend to submit to their children's desires are identified as ____ parents.
permissive
Setting and enforcing standards after discussion with their children is the approach taken by ____ parents.
authoritative
Studies have shown that children with highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have ___ parents.
authoritative
Adolescence is defined as the transition period between ____ and ____.
childhood
adulthood
The "storm and stress" view of adolescence is credited to ___, one of the first American psychologists to describe adolescence.
G Stanley Hall
Adolescence begins with the time of developing sexual maturity known as ____. A 2 year period of rapid physical development begins in girls about the age of ____ and in boys about the age of ____. This growth spurt is marked by the development of the reproductive organs and external genitalia, or ____ characteristics, as well as by the development of traits such as pubic hair and enlarged breasts in females and facial hair in males. These non reproductive traits are known as ____ characteristics.
puberty
11
13
primary sex
secondary sex
The first menstrual period is called ____. In boys, the first ejaculation is called ____.
menarche
spermarche
The ____ of pubertal changes is more predictable than their ____.
sequence
timing
Boys who mature ____ tend to be more popular, self-assured, and independent; they also are at increased risk for ____. For girls, ____ maturation can be stressful, especially when their bodies are out of sync with their ____. This reminds us that ___ and ___ interact.
early
alcohol use, delinquency, and premature sexual activity
early
emotional maturity
heredity
environment
The adolescent brain undergoes a selective ___ of unused neurons and connections. Also, teens' occasional impulsiveness and risky behaviors ma be due, in part, to the fact that development in the brain's ___ lags behind that of the ____.
pruning
frontal lobe
limbic system
Adolescents' developing cognitive ability enables them to think about what is ____ possible and ____ that with imperfect reality.
ideally
compare
During the early teen years, reasoning is often ____, as adolescents often feel their experiences are unique.
self-focused
Piaget's final stage of cognitive development is the stage of ____. Adolescent in this stage are capable of thinking logically about ____ as well as concrete propositions. This enables them to detect ____ in others' reasoning and to spot hypocrisy.
formal operations
abstract
inconsistencies
The theorist who proposed that moral thought progresses through stages is ____. These stages are divided into 3 basic levels: ____, ____, and ____.
Lawrence Kohlberg
preconventional
conventional
postconventional
In the pre conventional stages of morality, characteristic of children, the emphasis is on obeying rules in order to avoid ____ or gain ____.
punishment
rewards
Conventional morality usually emerges by early ____. The emphasis is on gaining social ____ or upholding the social ____.
adolescence
approval
order
Individuals who base moral judgements on their own perceptions of basic ethical principles are said by Kohlberg to employ ____ morality.
postconventional
The idea that moral feelings precede moral reasoning is expressed in the ___ explanation of morality. Research studies using ____ support the idea that moral judgment involves more than merely thinking; it is also gut-level feeling.
social intuitionist
moral paradoxes
Morality involves doing the right thing, and what we do depends on ___ influences. Today's ____ focus on moral issues and doing the right thing. They teach children ____ for others' feelings.
social
character education programs
empathy
Children who learn to delay ____ become more socially responsible, often engaging in responsible action through ____ learning. They also become more___ successful and more productive.
gratification
service
academically
Moral ideas grow ___ when acted on.
stronger
Group Age:
Infancy
Toddlerhood
Preschooler
Elementary School
Adolescence
Young Adulthood
Middle Adulthood
Late Adulthood
Psychosocial Stage:
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Initiative vs. guilt
Competence vs. inferiority
Identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Integrity vs. despair
To refine their sense of identity, adolescents in individualistic cultures experiment with different _____ in different situations. The result may be role ____, which is resolved by forming a self definition or _____.
selves
confusion
identity
Some adolescents forge their identity early, simply by ___ their parents' values and expectations. Other may assume an identity ___ that of their parents.
adopting
opposing
During the early to mid teen years, self esteem generally _____. During the late teens and twenties, self esteem generally ____ and identity becomes more ____.
falls
rises
personalized
Erikson saw the formation of identity as a prerequisite for the development of ____ in young adulthood.
intimacy
Adolescence is typically a time of increasing influence from one's ____ and decreasing influence from ____.
peers
parents
Most adolescents report that they ____ get along with their parents. They see their parents as having the most influence in shaping their ____, for example.
do
religious faith
When rejected adolescents withdraw, they are vulnerable to ____, low ____, and ____.
loneliness
self-esteem
depression
As a result of increased ____ and weakened _____ bonds, sexual maturity is beginning ___ than in the past.
body fat
parent-child
earlier
Because the time from 18 to the mid twenties is increasingly a not-yet-settled phase of life, some psychologists refer to this period as a time of ____.
emerging adulthood
During adulthood, age ____ a very good predictor of people's traits.
is not
The mid-twenties are the peak years for ____, ____, ____, and ____. Because they mature earlier, ____ also peak earlier.
muscular strength
reaction time
sensory keenness
cardiac output
women
During early and middle adulthood, physical vigor has less to do with ____ than with a person's ____ and ____ habits.
age
health
exercise
The cessation of the menstrual cycle, known as ____, occurs within a few years of ____. This biological change results from lowered levels of the hormone ____. A woman's experience during this time depends largely on her ____ and ____.
menopause
50
estrogen
expectations
attitude
Although men experience no equivalent to menopause, they do experience a more gradual decline in ____ count, level of the hormone ____, and speed of erection and ejaculation during later life.
sperm
testosterone
Worldwide, life expectancy at birth increased from 49 years in 1950 to ____ years and beyond in 2004 in some developed countries. Women outlive men by nearly ____ years worldwide and by ___ years in Canada, the United States, and Australia. With age, the tips of our chromosomes, called ____, shorten.
80
4
5 to 6
telomeres
According to one evolutionary theory, our bodies age and wear out because once we've completed our ____ and nurturing task, there are no ___ pressures against genes that cause degeneration in later life.
gene-reproducing
natural selection
The human spirit also affects life expectancy. The death rate increases when people reach their birthdays, a finding referred to as the ____ phenomenon.
death-defferal
With age, the eye's pupil ____ and its lens becomes ____ transparent. As a result, the amount of light that reaches the retina is ____.
shrinks
less
reduced
Although older adults are ___ susceptible to life-threatening ailments, they suffer from short-term ailments such as flu ____ often than younger adults.
more
less
Aging ____ neural processing and causes a gradual loss of ____.
slows
brain cells
Physical exercise stimulates ____ development and ____ connections, thanks perhaps to increased ___ and nutrient flow.
brain cell
neural
oxygen
The mental erosion that results from progressive damage to the brain is called ____.
dementia
The irreversible disorder that causes progressive brain deterioration is ____ disease. This disease has been linked to a deterioration of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter ____.
Alzheimer's
acetlycholine
Studies of developmental changes in learning and memory show that during adulthood there is a decline in the ability to ____ new information but not in the ability to ____ such information. One factor that influences memory in the elderly is the ____ of material.
recall
recognize
meaningfulness
Adults' ___ memory remains strong when events help trigger recall.
prospective
Cognitive abilities among 70 year olds are ____ varied than among 20 year olds.
more
A research study in which people of various ages are compared with one another is called a ___ study. THis kind of study found evidence of intellectual ____ during adulthood.
cross-sectional
decline
A research study in which the same people are retested over a period of years is called a ____ study. This kind of study found evidence of intellectual ___ during adulthood.
longitudinal
stability
The accumulation of stored information that comes with education and experience is called ____ intelligence, which tends to ___ with age.
crystallized
increase
The ability to reason abstractly is referred to as ___ intelligence, which tends to ____ with age.
fluid
decrease
Contrary to popular opinion, job and marital dissatisfaction do not surge during the forties thus suggesting that a midlife ____ need not occur.
transition (crisis)
The term used to refer to the culturally preferred timing for leaving home, getting a job, marrying, and so on is the ____. Today the timing of such life events is becoming ____ predictable. More important than age are ____ and chance encounters.
social clock
less
life events
According to Erikson, the 2 basic tasks of adulthood are achieving ____ and ____. According to Freud, the healthy adult is one who can ___ and ___.
intimacy
generativity
love
work
Human societies have nearly always included a relatively ___ bond. Marriage bonds are usually lasting when couples marry after age ___ and are ____.
monogamous
20
well educated
Marriages today are ____ as likely to end in divorce as they were in the 1960's. Couples who live together before marrying have a ____ divorce rate than those who do not.
twice
higher
Marriage is a predictor of ___, ____, ____, and ____. Lesbian couples report ___ well-being than those who are alone.
happiness
sexual satisfaction
health
income
greater
As children begin to absorb time and energy, satisfaction with the marriage itself ____. This is particularly true among ___ women, who shoulder most of the burden.
decreases
employed
For most couples, the children's leaving home produces a(n) ____ in marital satisfaction.
increase
During the first 2 years of college or university, most students ____ predict their later careers. Most ____ shift from their original major.
cannot
do
From early adulthood to midlife, people typically experience a strengthening sense of ____, ____, and ____.
identity
confidence
self-esteem
According to studies older people ____ report as much happiness and satisfaction with life as younger people do. In addition their feelings ____ mellow.
do
do
As we age, the brain area called the ____ shows ____ activity in response to negative events.
amygdala
decreased
More and more people flourish into later life, thanks to ____ influences.
biopsychosocial
Grief over a loved one's death is especially severe when it comes _____.
suddenly and before its expected time on the social clock
Reactions to a loved one's death ____ vary according to cultural norms. Those who express the strongest grief immediately ____ purge their grief more quickly.
do
do not
Terminally ill and bereaved people ____ go though predictable stages.
do not
According to Erikson, the final task of adulthood is to achieve a sense of ____.
integrity
Stage theories that have been considered include the theory of cognitive development proposed by ____, the theory of moral development proposed by _____, and the theory of psychosocial development proposed by____.
Piaget
Kohlberg
Erikson
Although research casts doubt on the idea that life proceeds through age-linked ____, there are spurts of ___ growth during childhood and puberty that correspond roughly to the stages proposed by ____.
stages
brain
Piaget
The first two years of life ____ provide a good basis for predicting a person's eventual traits.
do not
Research on the consistency of personality shows that some traits, such as those related to ____, are more stable than others, such as social attitudes.
temperament
zygote
the fertilized egg, that is, the cluster of cells formed during conception by the union of sperm and egg
embryo
the developing prenatal organism from about 2 weeks through 2 months after conception; formed from the inner cells of the zygote
fetus
the developing prenatal human from 9 weeks after conception to birth
teratogens
(literally, poisons) are any chemicals and viruses that cross the mother's placenta and can harm the developing embryo or fetus
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
refers to the physical and cognitive abnormalities that heavy drinking by a pregnant woman may cause in the developing child
habituation
decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus that is repeatedly present
a simple form of learning used to study infant cognition
maturation
the biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience or other environmental factors
cognition
refers to all the mental processes associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
schema
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development they are mental concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information
sensorimotor stage
lasts from birth to nearly age 2. During this stage infants gain knowledge of the world through thier senses and their motor activities
object permanence
develops during the sensorimotor stage, is the awareness that things do not cease to exist when not perceived
pre operational stage
lasts from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age. During this stage, language development is rapid, but the child is unable to understand the mental operations of concrete logic
conservation
the principle that properties such as number, volume, and mass remain constant despite changes in the forms of objects; it is acquired during the concrete operational stage
egocentrism
refers to the difficulty that pre operational children have in considering another's viewpoint. "Self-centered"
theory of mind
our ideas about our own and others' thoughts feelings and perceptions and the behaviors these might predict
basic trust
a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy a concept that infants form if their need needs are met by responsive caregiving
self concept
our understanding and evaluation of who we are
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that enable reproduction
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics (female breasts, male voice quality, and body hair)
identity
one's sense of self, primary task of adolescence
social identity
refers to person's self-concept as defined by the groups to which he or she belongs
longitudinal study
the same people are tested and retested over a period of years
crystallized intelligence
refers to those aspects of intellectual ability such as vocabulary and general knowledge, that reflect accumulated learning, tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
refers to a person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly, tends to decline with age
The perceptual disorder in which a person has lost the ability to recognize familiar faces is ____.
prosopagnosia
The process by which we detect physical energy from the environment and encode it as neural signals is ____. The process by which sensations are organized and interpreted is ____.
sensation
perception
Sensory analysis, which starts at the entry level and works up, is called ____. Perceptual analysis, which works from our experience and expectations is called ____.
bottom up processing
top down processing
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them is ____.
psychophysics
The ____ refers to the minimum stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected ___ percent of the time.
absolute threshold
50
According to ___ theory, a person's experience, expectations, motivation and fatigue all influence he detection of a stimulus.
signal detection
Some entrepreneurs claim that exposure to "below threshold or ____ stimuli can be persuasive, but their claims are probably unwarranted.
subliminal
Some weak stimuli may trigger in our sensory receptors to a response that is processed by the brain, even though the response doesn't cross the threshold into ____ awareness.
conscious
Under certain conditions, an invisible image or word can ___ a person's response to a later question. This illustrates that much of our information processing occurs ____.
prime
automatically
The minimum difference required to distinguish two stimuli 50% of the time is called the ____. Another term for this value is the ____.
difference threshold
just noticeable difference (jnd)
The principle that the difference threshold is not a constant amount, but a constant proportion, is known as ____. The proportion depends on the ____.
Weber's law
stimulus
After constant exposure to an unchanging stimulus, the receptor cells of our senses begin to fire less vigorously; this phenomenon is called ____.
sensory adaption
This phenomenon illustrates that sensation is designed to focus on ____ changes in the environment.
informative
Stimulus energy is ____ into ___ messages by our eyes.
transduced
neural
The visible spectrum of light is a small portion of the larger spectrum of ___ radiation.
electromagnetic
The distance from one light wave peak to the next is called ____. This value determines the wave's color or ____.
wavelength
hue
The amount of energy in light waves or ____ determined by a wave's ____, or height, influences the ____ of a light.
intensity
amplitude
brightness
Light enters the eye through the ____, then passes through a small opening calle dthe ___; the size of this opening is controlled by the colored ____.
cornea
pupil
iris
By changing its curvature, the ____ can focus the image of an object onto the ___ the light sensitive inner surface of the eye.
lens
retina
The process by which the lens changes shape to focus images is called ___.
accommadation
The retina's receptor cells are the ___ and ____.
rods
cones
The neural signals produced in the rods and cones activate the neighboring ____ cells, which then activate a network of ____ cells. The axoms of ganglion cells converge to form the ____ which carries the visual information to the ____.
bipolar
ganglion
optic nerve
brain
Where this nerve leaves the eye, there are no receptors thus the area is called the ____.
blind spot
Most cones are clustered around the retina's point of central focus, called the ____, whereas the rods are concentrated in more ____ regions of the retina. Many cones have their own ____ cells to communicate with the visual cortex.
fovea
peripheral
bipolar
It is the ____ of the eye that permit the perception of color, whereas ____ enable black and white vision.
cones
rods
Unlike cones, in dim light the rods are ____. Adapting to a darkened room will take the retina approximately ____ minutes.
sensitive
20
Visual information percolates through progressively more ____ levels. In the brain it is routed by the ___ to higher level brain areas. Hubel and Wiesel discovered that certain neurons in the ____ of the brain respond only to specific features of what is viewed. They called these neurons ____.
abstract
thalamus
visual cortex
feature detectors
Feature detectors pass their information to higher level cells in the brain, which respond to specific visual scenes. Research has shown that in monkey brains such cells specialize in responding to a specific ____, _____, ____, or ____. In many corticol areas, teams of cells (____) respond to complex patterns.
gaze
head angle
posture
body movement
supercell clusters
The brain acheives its remarkable speed in visual perception by processing several subdivisions of a stimulus ____. This procedure called ____ may explain why people who have suffered a stroke may lose just one aspect of vision.
simultaneously
parallel processing
Other brain-damaged people may demonstrate ____ by responding to a stimulus that is not consciously perceived.
blindsight
An object appears to be red in color because it ____ the long wavelengths of red and because of our mental ____ of the color.
reflects (rejects)
construction
One out of every 50 people is color deficient; this is usually a male because the defect is genetically _____.
sex-linked
According to the ___ theory, the eyes have 3 types of color receptors: one reacts most strongly to ____, one to ____, and one to _____.
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic
red
green
blue
After staring at a green square for a while, you will see the color red, its ___ color as an ___.
opponent
afterimage
Hering's theory of color vision is called the ____ theory. According to this theory, after visual information leaves the receptors it is analyzed in terms of pairs of opposing colors: ____ versus ____, ____ versus ____, and ____ versus ____.
opponent-process
red
green
yellow
blue
black
white
The stimulus for hearing, or ___ is sound waves created by the compression and expansion of ____.
audition
air molecules
The amplitude of a sound wave determines the ____ we perceive.
loudness
The frequency of a sound wave determines the ____ we perceive.
pitch
Sound energy is measured in units called ____. The absolute threshold for hearing is arbitrarily defined as ____ such units.
decibels
zero
The ear is divided into 3 main parts: the ___ ear, the ____ ear, and the ___ ear.
outer
middle
inner
The outer ear channels sound waves toward the ____, a tight membrane that then vibrates.
eardrums
The middle ear transmits the vibrations through a piston made of three small bones: the ____, ____ and ____.
hammer
anvil
stirrup
In the inner ear, a coiled bony fluid filled tube called the ____ contains receptor cells for hearing. The incoming vibrations cause the ____ to vibrate the fluid that fills the tube, which causes ripples in the ____ bending the ____ that line its surface. This movement triggers impulses in the adjacent nerve fibers that converge to form the auditory nerve, which carries the neural messages (via the ___) to the ___ lobe's auditory cortex.
cochlea
oval window
basilar membrane
hair cells
thalamus
temporal
The brain interprets loudness from the ____ of hair cells a sound activates.
number
One theory of pitch perception proposes that different pitches activate different places on the cochlea's basilar membrane; this is the ___ theory. This theory has difficulty accounting for how we hear ____-pitched sounds, which do not have such localized effects.
place
low
A second theory proposes that the frequency of neural impulses, sent to to the brain at the same frequency as sound waves, allows the perception of different pitches. This is the ___ theory. This theory fails to account for the perception of ___ pitched sounds because individual neurons cannot fire faster than ____ times per second.
frequency
high
1000
For the higher pitches, cells may alternate their firing to match the sound's frequency, according to the ____ principle.
volley
We locate a sound by sensing differences in the ____ and ____ with which it reaches our ears.
speed (timing)
intensity
A sound that comes from directly ahead will be ___ to locate than a sound that comes off to one side.
harder
Problems in the mechanical conduction of sound waves through the outer or middle ear may cause ____.
conduction hearing loss
Damage to the cochlea's hair cell receptors or their associated auditory nerves can cause ____ hearing loss. It may be caused by disease, but more often it results from the biological changes linked with ___ and prolonged exposure to ear splitting noise or music.
sensorineural
aging
An electronic device that restores hearing among nerve-deafened people is a ____.
cochlear implant
Advocates of ____ object to the use of these implants on ___ before they have learned to ____. The basis for their argument is that deafness is not a ____.
deaf culture
children
speak
disability
Sign language ____ a complete language, ____ its own grammar, syntax, and semantics. People who lose one channel of sensation (such as hearing) ____ compensate with a slight enhancement in their other sensory abilities.
is
with
seem to
Deaf children raised in a household where sign language is used express higher ____ and feel more _____.
self-esteem
accepted
The sense of touch is a mixture of at least four senses: ___, ___, ____, and ____. Other skin sensations, such as tickle, itch, hot, and wetness, are ____ of the basic ones.
pressure
warmth
cold
pain
variations
The ____ influence on touch is illustrated by the fact that a self produced tickle produces less activation in the ____ than someone else's tickle. This influence is also seen in the ____ illusion.
top-down
somatosensory cortex
rubber hand
The system for sensing the position and movement of body parts is called ____. The receptors for this sense are located in the ____, _____, ____, and _____.
kinesthesis
tendons
joints
bones
ears
The sense that monitors the position and movement of the head (and thus the body) is the _____. The receptors for this sense are located in the ____ and _____ of the inner ear.
vestibular sense
semicircular canals
vestibular sacs
People born without the ability to feel pain may be unaware of experiencing severe ____. More numerous are those who live with ____ pain in the form of persistent headaches and backaches, for example.
injury
chronic
Pain is a property of our ___ as well as our ____ and ____, and our surrounding ____.
physiology
experiences
attention
culture
The pain system ____triggered by one specific type of physical energy. The body has specialized ____ receptors that detect hurtful stimuli.
is not
nociceptors
Melzack and Wall have proposed a theory of pain called the ____ theory, which proposes that there is a neurological ____ in the ____ that blocks pain signals or lets them through. It may be opened by activation of ___ nerve fibers and closed by activation of ____ fibers or by information from the ____.
gate-control
gate
spinal cord
small
large
brain
Pain producing brain activity may be triggered with our without ____.
sensory input
A sensation of pain in an amputated leg is referred to as a ____ sensation. Another example is ____, experienced by people who have a ringing-in-the-ears sensation.
phantom limb
tinnitus
The basic taste sensations are ____, ___, ____, ____, and a meaty taste called ____.
sweet
sour
salty
bitter
umami
Taste, which is a ____ sense, is enabled by the 200 or more ____ on the top and sides of the tongue. Each contain a ____ that catches food chemicals.
chemical
taste buds
pore
Taste receptors reproduce themselves every ____. As we age, the number of taste buds ____ and our taste sensitivity ____. Taste is also affected by ____ and by ____ use.
week or two
decreases
decreases
smoking alcohol
When the sense of smell is blocked, as when we have a cold, foods do not taste the same; this illustrates the principle of ____. The ____ effect occurs when we ____ a speaker saying one syllable while ____ another.
sensory interaction
McGurk
see
hearing
In a few more individuals, the senses become joined a phenomenon called ____.
synaesthesia
Like taste, smell, or ____, is a ____ sense. There ____ a distinct receptor for each detectable odor.
olfaction
chemical
is not
Odors are able to evoke memories and feelings because there is a direct link between the brain area that gets information from the nose and the ancient ____ centers associated with memory and emotion.
limbic
According to the ____ school of psychology, we tend to organize a cluster of sensations into a ____, or form.
Gestalt
whole
When we view a scene, we see the central object, or ____, as distinct from surrounding stimuli, or the ____.
figure
ground
Proximity, similarity, closure, continuity, and connectedness are examples of Gestalt rules of ____.
grouping
The principle that we organize stimuli into smooth, continuous patterns is called _____. The principle that we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object is ____. The grouping of items that look alike is the principle of ____. The tendency to perceive uniform or attached items as a single unit is the principle of ____.
continuity
closure
proximity
similarity
connectedness
The ability to see objects in three dimensions despite their two dimensional representations on our retinas is called ____. It enables us to estimate ____.
depth perception
distance
Gibson and Walk developed the ____ to test depth perception in infants. They found that each species, by the time it is ____, has the perceptual abilities it needs.
visual cliff
mobile
Any cue that requires both eyes: ____.
binocular
The greater the differences between the images received by the 2 eyes the nearer the object: ____. 3-D movies stimulate this cue by photographing each scene with 2 cameras.
retinal disparity
Any cue that requires either eye alone: ____.
monocular
If two objects are presumed to be the same size, the one that casts a smaller retinal image is perceived as farther away: ____.
relative size
An object partially covered by another is seen as farther away: ____.
interposition
Objects lower in the visual field are seen as nearer: ____.
relative height
As we move, objects at different distances appear to move at different rates: ___.
relative motion
Parallel lines appear to converge in the distance: ___.
linear perspective
The dimmer of 2 objects seems farther away: ____.
light and shadow
Our brain normally computes motion based partly on the assumption that shrinking objects are ____ and enlarging objects are ____. Sometimes we are fooled because larger objects seem to move ____ than smaller objects.
retreating
approaching
more slowly
The brain interprets as a rapid series of slightly varying images as ____. This phenomenon is called _____.
movement
stroboscopic movement
The illusion of movement that results when 2 adjacent stationary spots of light blink on and off in quick succession is called the ____.
phi phenomenon
Our tendency to see objects as unchanging while the stimuli from them change in size, shape, and lightness is called ____.
perceptual contancy
Due to shape and size constancy, familiar objects ___ appear to change shape or size despite changes in our ____ images of them.
do not
retinal
Several illusions, including the ___ and ___ illusions, are explained by the interplay between perceived ___ and perceived ____. When distance cues are removed these illusions are ____.
Moon
Ponzo
size
distance
diminished
The brain computes an object's brightness ____ surrounding objects.
relative to
The amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings is called ____.
relative luminance
The experience of color depends on the surrounding ____ in which an object is seen. In an unvarying context, a familiar object will be perceived as having consistent color, even as the light changes. This phenomenon is called _____.
context
color constancy
We see color as a result of our brains' computations of the light ____ by any object relative to its ____.
reflected
surrounding objects
The idea that knowledge comes from inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences was proposed by the philosopher ____.
Kant
On the other side were philosophers who maintained that we learn to perceive the world by experiencing it. One philosopher of this school was ____.
Locke
Studies of cases in which vision has been restored to a person who was blind from birth show that, upon seeing tactilely familiar objects for the first time, the person ____ recognizes them
cannot
Studies of sensory restriction demonstrate that visual experiences during ___ are crucial for perceptual development. Such experiences suggest that there is a ____ for normal sensory and perceptual development.
infancy
critical period
Humans given glasses that shift or invert the visual field ___ adapt to the distorted perception. This is called ____.
will
perceptual adaption
Animals such as chicks ____ to distorting lenses.
do not adapt
A mental predisposition that influences perception is called a _____.
perceptual set
How a stimulus is perceived depends on our perceptual ____ and the ____ in which it is experienced.
context
The context of a stimulus creates a ____ expectation that influences our perception as we match our ____ signal against it.
top-down
bottom-up
Our perception is also influenced by ____ about gender and the ___ context of our experiences.
stereotypes
emotional
To best understand perception, we need multiple levels of analysis because perception is a ____ phenomenon.
biopsychosocial
Psychologists who study the importance of considering perceptual principles in the design of machines, appliances, and work settings are called ____ psychologists.
human factors
Victims of the "curse of knowledge" technology developers who assume that others share their ____ may create designs that are unclear to others.
expertise
Another example of failure to consider the human factor in design is the "____" technology that provides embarrassing headsets that amplify sound for people with hearing loss.
assistive listening
Perception outside the range of normal sensation is called ____.
extrasensory perception
Psychologists who study ESP are called ____.
parapsychologists
The form of ESP in which people claim to be capable of reading others' minds is called ____. A person who "senses" that a friend is in danger might claim to have the ESP ability of ____. An ability to "see" into the future is called ___. A person who claims to be able to levitate and move objects is claiming the power of ____.
telepathy
clairvoyance
precognition
psychokinesis
Analyses of psychic visions and premonitions reveal ____ accuracy. Nevertheless some people continue to believe in their accuracy because vague predictions often are later ___ to match events that have already occurred. In addition, people are most likely to recall or ____ dreams that seem to have come true.
chance-level
interpreted (retrofitted)
reconstruct
Critics point out that a major difficulty for parapsychology is that ESP phenomena are not consistently _____.
reproducible
Researchers who tried to reduce external distractions between a "sender" and a "receiver" in an ESP experiment reported performance levels that ____ chance levels. Follow up studies ____.
beat
failed to replicate the results