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95 terms

BIOL 108 Exam 3 Flashcards

This set includes all of the vocabulary words for Chapters 10, 12, and 13 to help you prepare for Exam 3.
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adaptive radiation
when a small number of species diversifies into a much larger number of species
allopatric speciation
speciation with geographic isolation
analogous trait
features that are produced by convergent evolution and are not inherited from a shared ancestor
archaea
a group of prokaryotes that are evolutionarily distinct from bacteria and thrive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth
background extinction
occurs at a lower rate during times other than periods of mass extinctions
biodiversity
the variety and variability among all genes, species, and ecosystems on Earth
biological species concept
species are populations of organisms that interbreed, or could possibly interbreed, with each other under natural conditions, and that cannot interbreed with organisms outside their own group
class
a classification of organisms consisting of related orders
convergent evolution
populations of organisms living in similar environments experience similar selective forces
domain
the highest level of the hierarchy, including the bacteria, archaea, eukarya
extinction
the complete loss of all individuals in a species population
family
a classification of organisms consisting of related genera
genus
a classification of organisms consisting of closely related species
homologous feature
traits that are inherited from a common ancestor
hybrid
offspring of individuals of two different species
hybridization
the interbreeding of closely related species
kingdom
one of six categories into which all organisms on Earth are placed
life
a physical state characterized by the ability to replicate and the presence of metabolic activity
macroevolution
the accumulated effect of microevolution over a long period of time
mass extinction
a large number of species become extinct over a short period of time due to extraordinary and sudden environmental change
microbe
microscopic organism
microevolution
a slight change in allele frequencies over one or a few generations
microsphere
a membrane-enclosed, small, spherical unit containing a self-replicating molecule and carrying information, although no genetic material
monophyletic
all of the individuals are more closely related to each other than to any individuals outside of that group
morphological species concept
characterizes species based on physical features such as body size and shape
node
the common-ancestor points at which species diverge
order
a classification of organisms consisting of related families
phylogeny
the evolutionary history of organisms
phylum
a classification of organisms consisting of related classes
polyploidy
error during cell division in plants resulting in a doubling of the number of sets of chromosomes
postzygotic barrier
occur after fertilization and generally prevent the production of fertile offspring from individuals of two different species
prezygotic barrier
make it impossible for individuals to mate with each other, or if they can mate, make it impossible for the male's reproductive cell to fertilize the female's reproductive cell
protist
includes most of the single-celled eukaryotes, such as algae
punctuated equilibrium
rapid periods of evolutionary change are punctuated by longer periods with little change
reproductive isolation
the inability of individuals from two populations to produce fertile offspring with each other
ring species
populations that can interbreed with neighboring populations but not with populations separated by larger geographical distances
RNA world hypothesis
the Earth may have been filled with RNA-based life before it became filled with the DNA-based life we see today
speciation
one species splits into two distinct species
speciation event
a point in evolutionary history at which a given population splits into independent evolutionary lineages
species
different kinds of organisms
specific epithet
a noun or adjective added to the genus name to distinguish a species
sympatric speciation
speciation without geographic isolation
systematics
classification process that names and arranges species in a manner that indicates the common ancestors they share and the points at which they diverged from each other
viruses
biological entities that can replicate but which can conduct metabolic activity only by taking over the metabolic processes of a host organism and therefore fall outside the definition of life
angiosperm
vascular, seed-producing flowering and fruit-bearing plants, in which the seeds are enclosed in an ovule within the ovary
anther
the part of the male reproductive structure that produces pollen
bryophyte
three groups of plants (liverworts, hornworts, and mosses) that lack vascular tissue and move water and dissolved nutrients by diffusion
carpel
the female reproductive structure of a flower
cuticle
an outer waxy layer over the leaf and stem surfaces of plants to keep moisture inside their tissues
decomposer
organisms that break down and feed on once-living organisms
double fertilization
two separate fusions of male nuclei from the pollen grain with female nuceli in an ovule to produce an embryo and endosperm
endosperm
a store of carbohydrate within the seed that fuels the seed's initial growth
filament
supporting stalk of the anther
fleshy fruit
consists of the ovary and some additional parts of the flower that, whose seeds are dispersed by animals after they are eaten
flower
the part of the angiosperm that contains the reproductive structures
gametophyte
the haploid plant structure that produces gametes (sperm and egg)
gymnosperm
vascular plants that do not produce their seeds in a protective structure, but are usually found on the surface of the scales of a cone-like structure
hyphae
long strings of cells that make up the body of a fungus
lichen
fungi and chlorophyll-containing bacteria and algae becoming "partners" in mutually beneficial relationships
mycelium
a mass of interconnecting hyphae that make up the structure of a multicellular fungus
mycorrhizae
fungi that are in symbiotic associatons with plant roots
non-vascular plant
do not have vessels to transport water and food
ovary
enclosed chamber that contains one or more ovules in which eggs develop
ovule
the structure within the ovary of flowering plants that gives rise to female egg cells
plant
a multicellular eukaryote that produces its own food by photosynthesis and has an embryo that develops within the protected environment of the female parent
pollen grain
a structure that contains the male gametophyte of seed plants
pollination
the transfer of pollen from the male part of the flower (anther) to the ovule (female part) of the flower
prothallus
the free-living, heart-shaped, haploid life stage of a fern
root
the part of the plant below ground that is used to obtain water, nitrogen, and salts from the soil
seed
an embryonic plant with its own supply of water and nutrients encased within a protective coating
shoot
the part of the plant above ground consisting of the stem and leaves
sporangia
structures in which the spores are produced
spore
a single cell containing DNA, RNA, and a few proteins that can land in a moist, sheltered spot and grow into new (haploid) male or female bryophytes
stamen
the male reproductive structure of a flower
vascular plant
transport water and dissolved nutrients by means of vascular tissue, a system of tubes that extends from the roots through the stem and into the leaves
capsid
the protein container surrounding the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of a virus
capsule
a layer surrounding the cell wall of many bacteria that may restrict the movement of water out of the cell and thus allow bacteria to live in dry places, such as the surface of the skin
chemolithotroph
feed on inorganic molecules (ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, iron)
chemoorganotroph
feed on organic molecules (sugars)
conjugation
the process by which one bacterium transfers a copy of some of its genetic information to another bacterium, even when the two bacteria are different species
extremophile
archaea and bacteria that can tolerate extreme physical and chemical conditions
Gram stain
a method of dying the cell walls of bacteria to make them visible under a microscope and is helpful in identifying an unknown bacterium
host
the organism that a parasite lives in or on
microbe
any microscopic organism, including bacteria, archaea, and protists
Oxygen Revolution
the accumulation of oxygen released by cyanobacteria beginning 2.6 billion years ago
parasite
an organism that lives in or on another organism
pathogenic
any disease-causing organism
peptidoglycan
a glycoprotein on the outside of the cell wall of some bacteria
phagocytosis
relatively large particles are engulfed by the plasma membrane, a vesicle is formed, and the particle is moved into the cell
photoautotroph
use energy from sunlight to produce glucose via photosynthesis
plasmid
circular DNA molecules in bacteria found in addition to the chromosome
probiotic therapy
a method of treating infections by deliberately introducing benign bacteria
retrovirus
a RNA-containing virus that also contains a viral enzyme called reverse transcriptase that uses a strand of viral RNA as a template to synthesize a single strand of DNA
transduction
occurs when a virus called a bacteriophage infects a bacterial cell and passes along new genes to the bacterium
transformation
the process by which bacterial cells scavenge DNA from their environment