two layers of phospholipids with proteins either crossing the layers or on the surface of the layers
Which of the following best describes the structure of a biological membrane?
Water, Glucose, and Hydrogen
Which of these cannot rapidly pass directly through the phospholipids of the plasma membrane?
The polarity of membrane phospholipids
Which of the following factors does not affect membrane permeability?
Lipids are mostly non polar
How can a lipid be distinguished from a sugar?
True or false? Osmosis is a type of diffusion.
Which of the following particles could diffuse easily through a cell membrane?
True or false? The water-soluble portion of a phospholipid is the polar head, which generally consists of a glycerol molecule linked to a phosphate group.
Membrane proteins help move molecules across the membrane.
What distinguishes facilitated diffusion from simple diffusion?
Which of the following transporters does not use passive transport to move molecules across a membrane?
True or false? Active transport differs from passive transport in that active transport does not require an input of energy.
Which membrane protein would be used to move glucose across a membrane from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration?
The charge on the other side of the membrane is generally the opposite of the ion's charge.
Which of the following statements is true about the net movement of an ion across a membrane by passive diffusion through a membrane channel?
True or false? During active transport through the sodium-potassium pump, ATP hydrolysis provides the energy to pump three sodium ions into the cell for every two potassium ions pumped out of the cell.
Lactose transport by membrane proteins occurs under conditions in which the concentration of lactose inside the cell is higher than the concentration outside the cell. What type of transport is used to move lactose into the cell?
If the concentration of phosphate in the cytosol is 2.0 mM and the concentration of phosphate in the surrounding fluid is 0.1 mM, how could the cell increase the concentration of phosphate in the cytosol?
cotransport of the glucose with a proton or sodium ion that was pumped across the membrane using the energy of ATP hydrolysis
The movement of glucose into a cell against a concentration gradient is most likely to be accomplished by which of the following?
Active transport always involves the utilization of cellular energy, whereas passive transport does not require cellular energy.
Active and passive transport of solutes across a membrane typically differ in which of the following ways?
It can be either depending on the exact values
A reaction involving an increase in Enthalpy and an increase in Entropy will always be?
During a chemical reaction you observe that there is an increase in enthalpy and a decrease in the entropy. Based on these observations please indicate whether the following statement about this reaction is true or false. The products of this reaction are more organized than the reactants.
A spontaneous reaction occuring at 250K and with a 2.0Kcal decrease in entropy must have which of the following changes in enthalpy?
add a catalyst
How can one increase the rate of a chemical reaction?
A molecule which is bound to a site other than the active site of an enzyme and causes a decrease in the rate of the reaction would be best described as a
The most abundant lipids in most membranes are
have hydrophobic regions
Integral proteins (those embedded in the membrane) would be expected to:
into ... membranous vesicles
Endocytosis moves materials _____ a cell via _____.
the cell is engulfing extracellular fluid
You know that this process is pinocytosis because...
A white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is an example of _____.
whether or not the cell is partitioned by internal membranes
Which of the following clues would tell you if a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
The nuclear envelope is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.
Which statement correctly describes the nuclear envelope of a eukaryotic cell?
Proteins that will be secreted from the cell are likely to be found in closed spaces bounded by membranes of the endomembrane system.
Which one of the following statements about the endomembrane system is correct?
Both have their own DNA.
Which of the following are common traits of chloroplasts and mitochondria?
Movement of RNA molecules from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
Which of the following functions is NOT associated with the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells?
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle.
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.
In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.
The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.
NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space
During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.
kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
Based on size and charge which of the following would likely move through the lipid bilayer of a plasma membrane most rapidly?
Carrier proteins and channel proteins are both involved in?
The molecules being moved can cross the phospholipid bilayer easily.
Which of the following is usually NOT true about active transport?
Active transport moves molecules ____________ their concentration gradients and ____________ energy
Either procaryotic or eucaryotic
A cell containing the following structures, ribosomes, plasma membrane and flagella, but without a nucleus, ER, or mitochnodria could be?
Proteins to be exported from the cell
The rough ER is the site of the production of:
Many eucarytoic organelles are connected via a flow of membrane. Which of the organelles listed below is not part of this membrane flow?
Which of the following organelles would be expected to contain DNA?
White blood cells known as macrophages, consume and digest foreign cells. The organelle involved in digesting the foreign cells is?
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work?
True or false? The potential energy in an ATP molecule is derived mainly from its three phosphate groups.
Which process is not part of the cellular respiration pathway that produces large amounts of ATP in a cell?
Which step of the cellular respiration pathway can take place in the absence of oxygen?
Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?
NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to the chain.
Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain is true?
Electron transport and chemiosmosis
Which stage of glucose metabolism produces the most ATP?
True or false? The reactions that generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration take place in the mitochondria.
lactate and NAD+
In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.
pyruvate ... NADH
In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized.
In the absence of oxygen, what is the net gain of ATP for each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis?
The function of glycolysis is to begin catabolism by breaking glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, with a net yield of two ATP.
Which of the following statements accurately describes the function of a metabolic pathway involved in cellular respiration?
The basic function of fermentation is the regeneration of NAD+, which allows continued ATP production by glycolysis.
What is the basic function of fermentation
6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____
Which term describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll?
True or false? The chemiosmotic hypothesis states that the synthesis of ATP generates a proton gradient that leads to electron flow through an electron transport chain.
According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis, what provides the energy that directly drives ATP synthesis?
Which of the following particles can pass through the ATP synthase channel?
True or false? The region of ATP synthase that catalyzes the production of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate spans the chloroplast membrane.