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Ethics in America (DSST)
Ethics in America. Pretty sketch.
Terms in this set (46)
The study of the physical world, such as how it is made and how it works (Think "cosmetics", what's on top)
The study of the origin of the universe, such as how it came into existence.
Based on the idea that absolute law rules the universe and that humans can not change fate (depressing stoic).
The view that an action is right if it serves your own self-interest. An action is wrong if it does not serve our own self-interest.
Social Contract Theory
Enlightenment idea that government was created as an agreement between social groups as a way of structuring themselves in a mutually beneficial way
An ethical system stating that the greatest good for the greatest number should be the overriding concern of decision makers
A Sophist. "Man is the measure of all things". (the main character <protagonist> is the center of the story)
Raises questions about the ethics of war, also author of the "Peloponnesian War".
Student of Socrates (<pluto> comes after), who wrote "The Republic". He believed that the ideal state was divided by three classes of citizens.
Student of Plato, he believed in maintaining balance through the "golden mean".
Wrote the book "Leviathan", in which he concludes that fear causes people to surrender their rights to a ruler. (Think <Calvin and Hobbes> are afraid of the Leviathan)
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Both Locke and Kant believed that suicide was:
Wrong. You are <Locked> into life and <Kant> commit suicide.
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society. Wrote "Discourse on Political Economy" and "The Social Contract".
Relied heavily on Transcendental Idealism, and developed two categories of thought:
Practical Reason and Pure Reason.
Reasoning about how people should act.
Reasoning about what actually exists.
"Wealth of nations" advocated the idea of laissez faire; or government not involving themselves in the economy. Moral Egoist <John Smith taking all the gold in the new world>
An English philosopher who introduced the philosophy of utilitarianism. He argued that people should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility, or usefulness. He argued that the government should try to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. He argued that in general the individual should be free to pursue his or her own advantage without interference from the state
Duty Of Beneficence
The obligation to help people in need, provided that it doesn't harm us in the process
Duty of Nonmaleficence
Duty to not cause harm or detrimentality to the interests of others
Prima Facie Duties
We should generally adhere to these rules unless there is a compelling reason not to. <aspirin case>
The philosopher, in his work "The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law", listed 4 principles to determine the legitimacy of government intervention in individual freedom, and these are the Harm Principle, the Offense Principle, Paternalism, and Legal Moralism.
A policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights.
A principle first enunciated by John Stuart Mill stating that people should enjoy any and all liberties, even those harmful to themselves, as long as their behavior does not cause harm to others.
Individual liberty is justifiably limited to prevent offense to others.
It is morally legitimate for the state to prohibit via the criminal law certain types of action that cause neither harm nor offense to anyone (ex. homosexual conduct)
An approach to criminal justice in which the emphasis is on hurting the offender.
Model of justice opposed to retributive justice, aiming at the offender's contribution to offset the harm down, including reconciliation with victims.
An effort to preserve the status quo through the threat of force. <stock piling nuclear warheads>
Principle of Forfeiture
Person who threatens the life of an innocent person forfeits his own right to life.
We must ask whether we would be prepared for every person to follow a certain rule all the time.
A philosopher who argues - in his "A Theory of Justice" - that each of us, when in the hypothetical "original position," would agree to principles of justice & a social contract founded on "fairness" e.g. welfare provision & meeting the needs of the least advantaged in society. THE VEIL OF IGNORANCE.
Holds that we evaluate an action by examining its results
Theologian believed that loyalty could become the single guiding ethical principle. Defined loyalty as a social act of choice. <remain loyal to the rolls royce company>
A humble and constant striving for perfection and self improvement combined with a realistic awareness that such perfection cannot be reached.
Believed that our moral actions were guided by feelings. Ie: Perform a virtuous act and feel good about yourself. <It feels good to be at beautiful Hume Lake>
The utilitarian view that an act is right if and only if it results in as much good as any available alternative.
Every event, including human actions, is caused by previous events in accordance with the natural laws that govern the universe.
The concept of transcendental idealism is most often associated with:
18th century German philosophers.
Which of the following concepts is central to making ethical decisions for both Kant and Aristotle?
Who equated income tax to forced labor?
Who believed that suicide was wrong unless the gods encouraged it?
[blank] did not advocate focusing on self-interests in life:
Which of the following statements is a core belief of Aristotle?
Everything in life has a purpose.
A concept in which citizens act as legislators to determine collectively the laws of a society is known as:
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