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process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

Chemical Formula

a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements

Balanced Equation

each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element and mass is conserved

Limiting Factor

factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease

Light Intensity

a physical dimension of light waves that refers to how much energy the light contains; it determines the brightness of light


strengthening the concentration (as of a solute in a mixture) by removing extraneous material


a building with a roof and sides made of glass, used for growing plants that need warmth and protection

Dicotyledonous Leaf

A name for a group of flowering plants whose seed typically has two embryonic leaves or cotyledons.


organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

Cell Wall

a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell

Cell Membrance

Flexible, and lets substances in and out.


a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell


a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

Mesophyll Cells

loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface

Palisade Cells

Oblong cells in leaves that are located directly under the upper epidermis and contain chloroplasts

Gaseous Exchange

the movement of oxygen into the blood and cells, the movement of carbon dioxide in the reverse direction"

Vascular Bundles

strands of vascular tissue that run the length of the stem


the vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants


the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants

Nitrate Ions

any compound containing the nitrate group (such as a salt or ester of nitric acid)

Magnesium Ions

Obtained from the soil. Used to make chlorophyll. Deficiency causes yellow leaves called chlorsis

Root Hair Cell

the base of a hair strand


the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants

Water Vapor

water in a vaporous form diffused in the atmosphere but below boiling temperature


the amount of water vapor in the air


when leaves and stems droop as result of cells losing water

Transpiration Stream

When water is being taken from the top of the xylem vessels to supply the leaves it reduces the effective pressure at the top of the xylem vessels so water can flow up them


the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environments


the transport of dissolved material within a plant

Systemic Pesticide

absorbed and circulated by a plant or other organism so as to be lethal to the pests that feed on it


the rays of the sun


any of a group of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms


the blade of a leaf


the slender stem that supports the blade of a leaf


vascular bundles of xylem and phloem that are continuous through the stem and petiole


the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates


A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.

Guard Cell

pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing


Pore-like openings in leaves that allow gases (CO2 and O2) and water to diffuse in and out of the leaves.

Palisade Layer

The tightly packed photosynthetic cell found just under the epidermus in many leaves.

Spongy Layer

Moist, loosely packed layer of cells containing chloroplasts.


a carbohydrate, the main food energy source for human beings


a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms


a complex carbohydrate found in many plants and used as a sweetening agent


macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen


thick, greasy liquid that is either volatile ( to impact an aroma) or fixed

Cell Sap

a solution of sugars, amino acids and many other substances, found in the vacuoles of plant cells


abnormally distended especially by fluids or gas


lacking in strength or firmness or resilience

Herbaceous Plants

non woody plants with a soft stem


substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid

Sieve Tube Elements

found in phloem; stacked end to end; have holes so materials can get in and out of the phloem

Sieve Plates

An end wall in a sieve-tube member, which facilitates the flow of phloem sap in angiosperm sieve tubes.

Root Cap

thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root


The device used to measure the amount of transpiration occurring from a plant

Transpiration Rate

the process of givng off or exhaling water vapor through the skin or mucous membranes

Passive Transport

The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy

Active Transport

energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference

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