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58 terms

Unit 3 Vocab.

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Photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Chemical Formula
a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements
Balanced Equation
each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element and mass is conserved
Limiting Factor
factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease
Light Intensity
a physical dimension of light waves that refers to how much energy the light contains; it determines the brightness of light
Concentration
strengthening the concentration (as of a solute in a mixture) by removing extraneous material
Greenhouse
a building with a roof and sides made of glass, used for growing plants that need warmth and protection
Dicotyledonous Leaf
A name for a group of flowering plants whose seed typically has two embryonic leaves or cotyledons.
Chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
Cell Wall
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
Cell Membrance
Flexible, and lets substances in and out.
Vacuole
a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell
Cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Mesophyll Cells
loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface
Palisade Cells
Oblong cells in leaves that are located directly under the upper epidermis and contain chloroplasts
Gaseous Exchange
the movement of oxygen into the blood and cells, the movement of carbon dioxide in the reverse direction"
Vascular Bundles
strands of vascular tissue that run the length of the stem
Xylem
the vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants
Phloem
the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants
Nitrate Ions
any compound containing the nitrate group (such as a salt or ester of nitric acid)
Magnesium Ions
Obtained from the soil. Used to make chlorophyll. Deficiency causes yellow leaves called chlorsis
Root Hair Cell
the base of a hair strand
Transpiration
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
Water Vapor
water in a vaporous form diffused in the atmosphere but below boiling temperature
Humidity
the amount of water vapor in the air
Wilting
when leaves and stems droop as result of cells losing water
Transpiration Stream
When water is being taken from the top of the xylem vessels to supply the leaves it reduces the effective pressure at the top of the xylem vessels so water can flow up them
Adaptations
the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environments
Translocation
the transport of dissolved material within a plant
Systemic Pesticide
absorbed and circulated by a plant or other organism so as to be lethal to the pests that feed on it
Sunlight
the rays of the sun
Chlorophyll
any of a group of green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms
Lamina
the blade of a leaf
Petiole
the slender stem that supports the blade of a leaf
Veins
vascular bundles of xylem and phloem that are continuous through the stem and petiole
Epidermis
the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
Cuticle
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
Guard Cell
pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing
Stomata
Pore-like openings in leaves that allow gases (CO2 and O2) and water to diffuse in and out of the leaves.
Palisade Layer
The tightly packed photosynthetic cell found just under the epidermus in many leaves.
Spongy Layer
Moist, loosely packed layer of cells containing chloroplasts.
Starch
a carbohydrate, the main food energy source for human beings
Glucose
a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms
Sucrose
a complex carbohydrate found in many plants and used as a sweetening agent
Proteins
macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Oils
thick, greasy liquid that is either volatile ( to impact an aroma) or fixed
Cell Sap
a solution of sugars, amino acids and many other substances, found in the vacuoles of plant cells
Turgid
abnormally distended especially by fluids or gas
Flaccid
lacking in strength or firmness or resilience
Herbaceous Plants
non woody plants with a soft stem
Lignin
substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid
Sieve Tube Elements
found in phloem; stacked end to end; have holes so materials can get in and out of the phloem
Sieve Plates
An end wall in a sieve-tube member, which facilitates the flow of phloem sap in angiosperm sieve tubes.
Root Cap
thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root
Potometer
The device used to measure the amount of transpiration occurring from a plant
Transpiration Rate
the process of givng off or exhaling water vapor through the skin or mucous membranes
Passive Transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
Active Transport
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference