46 terms

anthro 2, phys anthro

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anthropology?
the study of all aspects of the human experience
What makes anthropology different from other social sciences?
cultural factors and historical factors influence
four subfields of anthropology?
biological cultural linguistic archaeological
four principles of science
critical thinking, practitioners, scientific method, collaboration
scientific method
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
hypothesis
A testable explanation for observed facts`
inductive method
Process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them.
deductive method
A method of testing hypothesis in which you formulate a hypothesis that you believe to be true and then made to verify if your hypothesis is correct
working hypothesis
Provisional acceptance of something being true
scientific theory
A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results
Is evolution a fact or a theory?
both. fact is that earth and things on it have changed over time, theory is explanation for how changes have occurred.
belief systems
...
cosmologies
understandings of how the universe operates along with how people and spiritual powers relate to it
evolution
Change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
When did humans begin to hypothesize about the origin of humans?
basically the beginning of time
catastrophism
cuvier - great disasters regularly cause exinctiond
uniformitarianism
geological processes are cyclical - operate in the same way
Lamarck
will to change, inheriysncr of acquired trsaits, law of use and disuse. environment challenges organisms.
Darwin and Wallace's explanation for evolution
competition for survival. natural selection.
natural selection
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
adaptation
A characteristic that improves an individual's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
creation science
-A form of creationism advocated as an alternative to the scientific theory of evolution, and holding that the creation of the universe and everything in it was supernatural and relatively recent (webster)
intelligent design
The belief that evolution did happen but it was because a divine being (such as God) planned it to happen as it did
DNA
A nucleic acid found in the nucleus of all living cells, which carries the organism's hereditary information.
chromosome
A coiled structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material.
what did Mendel discover
Mendel reached the conclusion that each organism possess two genes for each trait—one from each parent.
Genes can come in different versions today called alleles.
Mendel's principles of segregation and independent assortment say?
independent assortment: allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes - traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another

segregation: In the formation of gametes, homologous chromosomes seperate so each gamete is equally likely to contain either member of the original pair
allele
A variation of a gene's nucleotide sequence (an alternative form of a gene).
dominant v recessive traits
...
breeding population
A group of organisms that tend to choose mates from within a group.
What is biological evolution and how is it studied?
All of the changes that have transformed life on earth from the earliest beginning to the diversity of organisms in the world today
What are the components of the Hardy-Weinberg Theory of Equilibrium? What do they represent? What is its purpose?
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 =
p= frequency of dom allele
q = frequency of recessive allele
predicts pattern of allelic representation over time, if change,... evolutionary forces
evolutionary forces
mutation, gene flow, natural selection, genetic drift
How do the four evolutionary forces interact with each other?
...
fitness
How well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment
balancing selection
Natural selection that maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypic forms in a population.
stabilizing selection
Natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes
directional selection
Natural selection that favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range.
artificial selection
Breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits.
gene pool
All of the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population
mutation
A random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
How are mutations caused?
Small changes in the DNA sequence
genetic flow
Movement of organisms in and out of a population. New individuals bring new genes to gene pool. Organisms who leave take genes out of gene pool.
genetic drift
Random change in allele frequency over time across generations
founder effect
Change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
fission
the splitting up of a populating to form new populaitons