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402 terms

micro chapter 12

STUDY
PLAY
Mycology
study of fungi
No
is there peptidoglycan in fungi cell walls?
Yes
are sterols present in cell membrane of fungi?
Chemoheterotrophs
all fungi are BLANK; require organic compounds for energy and carbon
Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic
fungi are usually BLANK in terms of their oxygen needs and use
Thallus
body of a mold or fleshy fungus
Hyphae
thallus consisting of long filaments of cells joined together
Septate hyphae
hyphae with cross-walls which divide molds into distinct uninucleate cell-like units
Coencytic hyphae
hyphae contain no septa and appear as long, continuous cells with many nuclei
Mycelium
visible to the naked eye, hyphae grow into a filamentous mass
Vegetative hypha
portion of hypha which contains nutrients
Reproductive or aerial hyphae
portion of hypha concerned with reproduction
Yeast
nonfilamentous, unicellular, spherical or oval, frequently found as white powdery coating on fruits and leaves, facultative anaerobic growth, survive in various elements
Budding yeasts
yeasts that divide unevenly, saccharomyces
Asexual and sexual
what forms of reproduction are done by fungi?
Spores
formation of BLANK leads to both sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi
No
do fungal spores have the same properties and characteristics as bacterial endospores
More
are bacterial endospores more or less tolerant to extreme environmental issues than fungal spores?
Asexual spores
spores formed by the hyphae of one organism; genetically identical to parent
Sexual spores
spores result from the fusion of nuclei from two opposite mating strains of the same species of fungus; genetic similarities to both parents
Asexual spores
conidia, arthroconidia, blastoconidia, chlamydoconidia, sporangiospores
Conidiospore
type of asexual spore, unicellular or multicellular spore NOT enclosed in a sac, produced in a chain at the end of a conidiophore, spores produced by aspergillus
Sporangiospore
type of asexual spore, formed within a sac, produced by Rhizopus
Sporangium
sac at the end of of an aerial hypha (sporangiophore)
True
Fungi are more resistant to osmotic pressure than bacteria, True or False.
Less
Do fungi need more or less moisture to grow than bactera?
Fungi
which needs less nitrogen to grow, fungi or bacteria?
True
are fungi capable of metabolizing complex carbohydrates? True or False?
Sexual, asexual
Ascospores differ from conidia in the manner that, ascospores are BLANK, and conidia are BLANK
systemic, subcutaneous, cutaneous, superficial, opportunistic
5 classifications of mycoses
Systemic mycoses
fungal infections deep within the body, usually from fungi living in soil, inhalation of spores
Subcutaneous mycoses
fungal infections beneath the skin caused by saprophytic fungi living in soil and vegetation
Cutaneous mycoses
fungal infections of the epidermis, hair and nails; also known as dermatophytes
Keratin
dermatophytes secrete enzyme keratinase to degrade what protein found in skin, hair and nails?
Superficial mycoses
fungal infections along the hair shafts and top layer epidermal cells
Opportunistic pathogen
generally harmless in its normal habitat, but can become pathogenic in a host who is seriously debilitated or traumatized
Rhizopus
zygomycota/conjugation fungi, example of mycosis is black bread mold, produces sporangiospores (asexual spores)
Aspergillus
causes aspergillosis, opportunistic mycoses, occurs in people with debilitating lung diseases or cancer and have inhaled the spores,
Cryptococcus neoformans
usually only infect immunocompromised patients, AIDS patients, inhaled fungus in bird droppings, effects central nervous system, causes meningitis and death at high rates
Candida albicans
pathogen that is the most common cause of yeast infections
Ringworm
fungal skin infection, causes itchy red raised scaly patches of skin that can blister or ooze
Algae
unicellular or filamentous, aquatic, need moisture, simple eurkaryotic photoautotrophs, lack tissues of plants, produce sexually or asexually
Holdfasts, stipes, blades
3 structural parts of algae
True
does algae use photosynthesis to produce nutrition, True or False?
Chlorophyll a
what is responsible for the photosynthesis in algae?
Protozoa
unicellular, eukaryotic chemoheterotrophic, usually require a host to feed off of
Trophozoite stage
feeding and growing stage of protozoa, feeds upon bacteria and small particulate nutrients
Fission, budding, schizogony
3 methods of parasite asexual reproduction
Schizogony
multiple fission; nucleus undergoes multiple division before the cell divides
Protozoan conjugation
two cells fuse, and a haploid nucleus from each cell migrates to the other cell, this haploid micronucleus fuses with the haploid micronucleus within the cell, parent cells separate each now a fertilized cell, later divide into daughter cells
Encystment
production of a protective capsule called a cyst
Apicomplexa
which category of protozoa produce oocysts?
Aerobic heterotrophs
what category are protozoa in in terms of nutrition?
Cytostome
mouthlike opening of ciliates; used to ingest food
Pseudopods
extending blunt, lobelike projections of amoebas used to move
Archaezoa
eukaryotes that lack mitochondria, but have mitosomes
Mitosomes
unique organelle in archaezoa which resemble mitochondria
Trichomonas vaginalis
archaezoa infection, found in the female vagina and male urinary tract
Giardia lamblia
parasitic archaezoa, causes Giardiasis, found in the small intestine of humans and other mammals, excreted in the feces as a cyst
chronic diarrhea, keratoconjunctivitis
2 problems that microspora cause
Entamoeba histolytica
only pathogenic amoeba found in the human intestine, causes amoebic dysentry, transmitted human to human by eating the cysts in infected feces
Apicomplexa
obligate intracellular parasites, not motile in mature form, presence of a complex of special organelles at the tips of their cells
Plasmodium
apicomplexa which causes malaria, transmitted through mosquitoes to humans
Sporozite
infective stage of plasmodium
Intermediate host
the host in which the parasite undergoes asexual reproduction
Definitive host
host that harbors the sexually reproducing stage
Mosquito
definitive host of malaria
Human
intermediate host of malaria
Plasmodium vivax
most common form of malaria, life cycle is very quick, sometimes referred to as "dormant malaria," develops in mosquitoes at lower temperature
Plasmodium falciparum
most dangerous form of malaria, very recent form or malaria making it more dangerous because humans haven't had a chance for our bodies to become used to this form of malaria, referred to as "malignant malaria"
5 apicomplexa human parasites
plasmodium, babesia microti, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium, cyclospora cayetanensis
Cryptosporidium
apicomplexa, causes diarrhea, transmitted to humans through feces of cows, rodents, dogs and cats
Cyclospora cayetanensis
apicomplexa similar to cryptosporidium, responsible for 300 cases of diarrhea associated with snow peas in the US and Canada
Leishmaniasis
euglenozoa, causes lesions either on the skin or on the organs depending on the type, caused by a bite from a female sandfly
Chagas' disease
euglenozoa, known as American trypanosomiasis, protozoan disease of the cardiovascular system, transmitted by the "kissing bug" (reduviid bug-arthropod)
African trypanosomiasis
euglenozoa, African sleeping disease, transmitted by the bite of tsetse fly
Hemoflagellates
blood parasites, transmitted by blood-feeding insects, found in circulatory system of host
Platyhelminths (flatworms), Nematoda (roundworms)
two major categories of parasitic helminthes
Helminth characteristics
lack a digestive system, nervous system reduced, locomotion reduced or completely lacking, reproductive system is often complex
Dioecious
adult helminths where male reproductive organs are in one individual and female reproductive organs are in another
Hermaphroditic
one animal has both male and female reproductive organs
Trematodes
flukes, type of platyhelminths, flat, leaf-shaped bodies with ventral and oral suckers to keep them in place, obtain food through outer cuticle (outer layer)
Cestodes
tapeworms, type of platyhelminths, intestinal parasites, do not ingest tissues of host, lack digestive system, absorb food through cuticle
Roundworms
members of phyla nematoda, cylindrical in shape, have complete digestive systems, some free-living, some live off of host
Sexual dimorphism
male and female worms look distinctly different
Ascaris
large nematode, sexual dimorphism, lives in the small intestines of humans exclusively; feeds on semidigested food, infects children when playing in dirt
Hookworms
live in small intestines of humans, eggs are excreted in feces, enters host by penetrating hosts skin (feet), wear shoes to prevent, eventually moves to blood and lymph vessels, then to lungs
Trichinellosis
caused by nematode, causes heartworm primarily in dogs and cats, can infest humans, comes from mosquito bites
Arthropods
animals characterized by segmented bodies, hard external skeletons, and jointed legs
Vectors
pathogenic microorganisms carried by arthropods
these are all chracteristics of what?
Chemoheterotrophic
Chitin/ Cell wall
Lack Chlorophyll (no photosynthesis)
Fungi-characteristics
helps roots grow
Mycorrhizae
An organism that uses organic molecules as a source of carbon and energy is called
Chemoheterotrophic
Saprobes
Haustoria
Aerobic(with oxygen)
facultative (survive in varitey of hostile conditions)
anaerobic (no oxygen)
Low Moisture acidic environements
metabolize complex carbs

these all represent nutrition of what?
nutrition of fungi
body of a mold or fleshy fungus
thallus
branching, threadlike LONG FILAMENTS tubes that make up the bodies of multicellular fungi
hyphae
two forms of growth
dimorphic
Organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter
saprobes
a structure of a parasitic plant or fungus that penetrates host tissues to obtain food and water
Haustoria
reproduction of fungi is asexual or sexual?
asexual
Fungi;
3 types of asexual spores formation
Sporangiospores
Chlamydospores
Conidiospores
a. Arthroconidia
b. blastoconidia
how do Sporangiospores form?
inside a sac called a sporangium
how do Chlamydospores form?
with a thickened cell wall INSIDE hyphae
name the 2 types of Conidiospores
2 types
a. Arthroconidia
b. blastoconidia
___________are formed by the fragmentation of septate hyphae into single, slightly thickened cells
Arthroconidia
buds coming off the parent cell are called?
blastoconidia
name the 4 classes of Fungi
Zygomycota
Ascomycota
Basidiomycota
Deuteromycetes
Ascomycota include what?
sac fungi, molds & yeasts
Basidiomycota are also known as
fungi, mushrooms
fungi having no known sexual stage are called
deuteromycetes
protozoan asexual reproduction within red blood & liver cells
Schizogony
the division of a cell's cytoplasm is called
Cytokinesis
eukaryotic;
unicellular organisms
lack a cell wall. Most are chemoheterotrophes. name this organism
Protozoa
All free-living aquatic and pathogenic protozoa exist as a motile feeding stage called a ______________
trophozoite
many protozoa have a hardy resting stage called a _____, which is characterized by a thick capsule and a low metabolic rate.
cyst
chemoheterotrophic: obtaining nutrients by phagocytizing bacteria, decaying organic matter, other protozoa, or the tissues of a host; a few protozoa absorb nutrients from the surrounding water.
protozoa nutrition
reproduce asexually only, by binary fission or schizogony; few are sexual
how do protozoa reproduce?
fertilized egg, diploid (2 sets of chromo's) cell formed from a gamete
zygote
haploid (1n, single nucleaus) sex cells
gametes/gametocytes
A nucleus that has replicated its DNA divides via a process called , _______
mitosis
______ is nuclear division of diploid cells that results in four haploid daughter nuclei. sexual reproduction
Meiosis
Taxonomists continue to revise and refine the classification of ______ based on 18S rRNA nucleotide sequencing and features made visible by electron microscopy.
protozoa
what is a well-known opportunistic pathogenic parabasalid causes severe inflammation of the human vagina?
Trichomonas
what do Parabasala lack?
mitochondria
what are the 4 classes of Protozoa?
Parabasala
Alveolates
Amoebozoa
Euglenozoa
What do Parabasalas have?
single nucleus and a parabasal body (golgi-like)
what do alveolates have?
cavities called alveoli
what do cilaites of Alveolates have?
cilia and 2 nuclei
what is a well known pond water ciliate?
Paramecium
alveolates called ______ are all pathogens of animals
apicomplexans
what does the name of the group apicomplexans refer to?
complex (group) of special organelles that infect at the apex
what do Amoebozoas have?
what do they lack?
Lobe shaped pseudopodia
NO shells
what do Amoebozoas cause?
disease in brains of humans and animals that swim in water containing them
what are 2 Ameobozoas that cause brain disease?
Naegleria and Acanthamoeba
what ameobozoa causes fatal dystentry?
Entamoeba
what do slime molds lack?
cell walls
what is the nutrition of a slime mold?
phagocytic
what are the two types of slime molds ?
cellular and plasmodial
Plasmodial slime molds are composed of _________ ______ of _______
multinucleate filaments of cytoplasm.
Cellular slime molds are composed of what?
myxamoebae (amobea like structures)
what do Cellular slime molds composed of myamoebae phagocytize?
bacteria and yeasts
what is a group of euglenozoa called?
euglenoids
how do euglenoids store food?
as a polysaccharide called paramylon
the characteristics of euglenoids are __________,_________ and _________
photoautotrophic, unicellular, chloroplasts
euglenoids contain choroplasts that contain light absorbing pigments
T or F?
True
what do Euglenoids have that helps maintain shape?
semi-rigid, proteinaceous, helical (spiral) shaped pellicle
what is a pellicle?
a thin multilayered sheath that underlies the cell membrane.
what are Fungi?
chemoheterotrophic eukaryotes with cell walls
do fungi have cell walls?
yes
what are the cell walls of fungi composed of?
chitin
what is study of fungi?
mycology
what do fungi decompose and recycle?
dead organisms; recycle nutrients
fungi are known to do what at the root of plants?
Mycorrhizae (help roots grow)
what are 3 ways humans use Fungi?
Food, beverages, and pharmacauticals
Fungi important research tools for what?
study of metabolism, growth, and development
30% of Fungi produce mycoses. What is mycoses?
fungal diseases of plants animals and humans
what is the vegetative (non-reproductive) body of a fungus called?
thallus
long, branched tubular filaments that make up body (thallus) of molds or fleshy fungi
hyphae
branched, tubular filaments with crosswalls found in large fungi
Septate hyphae
without crosswalls, (undivided) and coenocytic, (contain many nuclei, not separated by cell walls)
aseptate hyphae
crosswalls of molds
septa
the thalli (bodies) of yeasts are ________, ________ and are composed of a ________ ________
small, globular, single cell
hyphae of a mold that intertwines into a tangled mass
mycelium
fungi that can grow as a mold or a yeast are called
dimorphic fungi-(meaning two)
mushrooms small visible extensions are called what?
fruiting bodies
Organism that obtain food from dead organisms, all fungi are this
saprobes
from other living organisms via modified hyphea called haustoria
How do other fungi get nutrients?
appendage of a parasitic fungus that penetrates host's tissue to withdraw nutrients
haustoria
Most fungi are aerobic or anerobic?
aerobic
yeasts get energy from
fermentation
do fungi reproduce mostly; sexually or asexually?
asexually (without sex)
How do fungi reproduce?
budding via asexual spores
where are Condiospores produced?
at tips or sides of hyphae, but not within a sac
2 haploid nuclei, forming new spores
(referring to sexual reproduction in fungus)
dikaryon
Fungi in the division Zygomycota are coencentric molds, what are these molds called?
zygomycetes
Zygomycota are mostly________
saprobes
what is the distinctive feature of a zygomycetes?
zygosporangia
what is zygosporangia ?
rough-walled sexual structures of the fungi zygomyocota
how do zygosporangia develop?
via fusion of sexually compatible hyphae following meiosis
how many known species of molds and yeasts does the divsion Ascomycota contain?
32,000 known species
the sac in ascomycetes in which the sexual spores are formed.
asci
The asci that occurs in the fruiting bodies are called
acsocarps
Ascomycetes include most of the fungi that spoil what?
food
ascomycetes also include
plant pathogens such as what agents?
Dutch elm disease
what are the 4 benefits of Ascomycetes?
baking, brewing, research, and pharmaceuticals.
Mushrooms and other fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes are called this
basidiocarps
tightly woven hyphae that extend into multiple projections at ends
basidia
what are the ends called of basidia that produce sexually?
basidiospores
basidiomycetes decompose what 2 things from dead plants?
cellulose and lignin
what happens after the basidiomycetes decompose cellulose and lignin?
nutrients are returned to the soil
what is a harmful result in basidiomycetes decomposition?
hallucinatory chemicals or toxins.
Lichens are organisms that are important how?
economically and environmentally
Lichens composed of fungi living in partnership with 2 types of photosynthetic microbes,
called
Cyanobacteria and green algae
how does the fungus of a lichen reproduce?
spores that capture algae
bits of lichen dispersed by small animals, wind or rain
soredia
what are the 3 shapes of lichen?
fruticose
crustose
foliose
lichen shape that is erect or hanging cylinder-like
fruticose
crustose are lichens that
grow appressed to their substrates
leaflike lichens that grow free from the substrate
foliose
what are lichens used for ?
nitrogen, food for animals/ humans, dyes, clothing, perfume, medicine and to monitor air quality
Are Algae are Eukaryotes? Photosynthetic?
YES. Algea are eukaryotic and
photosynthetic organisms
The study of algae is called ________
phycology.
Algae, like plants use _________
photosenthesis
Unicellular Algae reproduce sexually or asexually?
both
Algae are aquatic and live in what zone?
photic zone (fresh & salt water)
Algae have 3 different types of morphology. name them
unicellular
colonial
multicellular
the stem-like portion of seaweed algae
stipe
anchor seaweed bodies to rocks
holdfasts
buoyes that are gas-filled bulbs of seaweeds/algae
pneumocysts
Multicellular algae typically reproduce in two ways, what are they?
asexually by fragmentation or sexually by an alternation of generations
a haploid thallus alternates with a diploid thallus what is this called?
alternation of generations
motile feeding stage of a protozoan
trophozoite
Phaeophyta (brown)
name the brown algae
plant-like
store sugar
starch as food
18S rRNA
cholrophylls
live in freshwater
seasoning pepper /Codium
Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
_________contains the pigment phycoerythrin, the storage molecule glycogen, and cell walls of agar or carrageenan
Rhodophyta-Red Algae
this algae is used as a thickening agent in microbiology media & foods like ice cream, toothpaste, syrups; salad dressing
Rhodophyta-Red Algae
__________contain brown pigments called xanthopylls and a polysaccharide called laminarin +oil cell walls are composed of cellulose and alginic acid; also a thickening agent
Phaeophyta-brown algae
this Algae is most diverse in cell wall structure but uniform in use of the polysaccharide
Chrysophyta, the golden
algae
what color algae is Chrysophyta
golden, yellow green
algae
chrysophytes of Golden Algae contain more orange-colored _______ than chlorophyll, which accounts for their golden coloring
carotene
silica cell walls (frustules)
major component of phytoplankton;
major source of world's oxygen.
Diatoms
cillica cell wall of a Diatom is called
frustules
unicellular algae; make up most freshwater and marine plankton responsible for red tides; bioluminescent
dinoflagellates
what do Water molds have in their mitochondria?
tubular cristae
water molds have cell walls of ______
cellulose
water molds have spores with how many flagella?
2 flagella
Water molds ______ dead animals and return _______ to the environment
decompose
nutrients
this crop pathogen devastated the potato crop in Ireland during the mid-19th century, causing a famine that killed over 1 million people. What was this?
Water Mold called Phytophthora infestans
study of protozoa is called
protozoology
study of algae is called
phycology
fungal diseases are called
mycoses
Protozoans require what kind of environments?
Moist
Protozoans are critical members of this free-living drifting organism, that forms the basis of the aquatic food chain; name this protozoan organism
plankton
Name the Red Algae
Rhodophyta (red)
Name the Golden Yellow Algea
Chrysophyta
Name the Green Algae
Chlorophyta
Eukaryotic Nuclues
-Can be Haploid (having a single copy of each chromosome) or Diploid (having two copies)
-Divides by mitosis in four phases resulting in two nuclei with the same ploidy(# of sets of chromosomes) as the original.
Four phases of Mitosis
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Meiosis
Nuclear division that results in four nuclei, each half the ploidy of the original
Cytokinesis
a cells cytoplasm divides
Coenocytes
multinucleate cells resulting from repeated mitoses but postponed or no cytokinesis.
schizogony
multiple mitoses, the cell forms many nuclei and the cytoplasm separates. Multinucleate schizont
Classification of Eukaryotic Microbes
-Problematic and changed frequently
- Historical schemes based on similarities in morphology and chemistry have been replaced with schemes based on nucleotide sequences and ultrastructural features.
Protozoa
eukaryotic, unicellular organisms that lack cell walls. Most of them are chemoheterotrophs.
A motile trophozoite
the feeding stage of a typical protozoan
A cyst
a resting stage that is resilient to environmental changes, formed by some protozoa.
Sexual Reproduction of a few protozoa
forming gametocytes (gamete) that fuse with one another to form a diploid zygote.
7 Classifications of Protazoa
alveolates, cercozoa, radiolaria, amoebozoa, euglenozoa, diplomonads, and parabasalids.
Alveolates
have cavities beneath their cell surfaces called alveoli, include ciliate alveolates (cilia), apicomplexans (all are pathogenic), and dinoflagellates (responsible for red tides).
Amoebae
Protozoa that move and feed with pseudopodia.
-Cercozoa: threadlike pseudopodia and calcium carbonate shells.
-Radiolaria: threadlike pseudopodia and silica shells
-Amoebozoa: lobed shaped pseudopodia. includes free living amoebae, parasitic amoebae, and slime molds.
Slime Molds
Lack cell walls and are phagocytic in their nutrition.
Plasmodial Slime Molds
acellular and composed of multinucleate cytoplasm.
Cellular Slime Molds
Composed of myxamoebae that phagocytize bacteria and yeast.
Euglenids
Unicellular/ flagellated/ store food as paramylon/lack cell walls/ have eyespots used in postive phototaxis.
-They exhibit characteristics of both animals and plants therefore they are a taxonomic problem.
Kinetoplastid
euglenozoan with a single, large, apical mitochondiron that contains a kinetoplastm which is a region of DNA.
Diplomonadida
Lack mitochondria, Golgi bodies, and peroximones.
Parabasalids
eg. Trichomonas/ are characterized by a Golgi body-like structure called a parabasal body.
Fungi
chemoheterotrophic eukaryotes with cell walls usually composed of chitin. Most are benefical but some produces mycoses (fungal disease)
Thallus
noreproductive body of a filamentous fungus (mold) or yeast (unicellular fungus). Mold thalli are composed of tubular filaments called hyphae.
Septate or aseptate
a way of describing hyphae depending on the presense of crosswalls.
Mycelium
a tangled mass of hyphae
dimorphic
can take either form of fungi (hyphae or yeast) depending upon growth conditions, such as temperature.They have either type of thallus depending on environmental conditions.
Saprobes Fungi
An organism that acts as a decomposer by absorbing nutrients from dead organic matter.
Haustoria
In parasitic fungi, a nutrient-absorbing hyphal tip that penetrates the tissues of the host but remains outside the host cell membranes.
Fungi Reproduction
-most fungi reproduce sexually by sexual spores
-asexually by either budding or asexual spores
Zygomycota
division of fungi having sexually produced rough walled zygosporangia.
Microsporidia fungi
Unicellular parasites of animals and protists that molecular comparisons suggest may be most closely related to zygomycete fungi.
Ascomycota
molds and yeasts that are characterized by the formation of haploid ascospores within sacs calles asci.
PCN
Truffles
Basidiomycota
include mushrooms, puffballs, and bracket fungi, produce basidiospores at ends of basidia.
Deuteromycota
large and heterogeneous form division of fungi comprising forms for which no sexually reproductive stage is known
Lichens
economically and environmentally important organisms composed of fungi living in partnership with photosynthetic microbes, either green algae or cyanobacteria.
Who studies Algea
phycologists
Algea
typically reproduce by an alternation of generations in which a haploid thallus alternates with a diploid thallus.
Large Algea
multicellular thalli with stemlike stipes, leaflike blades, and holdfasts that attach them to substrates.
Chlorophyta
large division of chiefly freshwater eukaryotic algae that possess chlorophyll a and b, store food as starch, and cellulose cell walls
Rhodophyta
Red Algae
contain the pigment phycoerythrin, the storage molecule floridean starch, and cell walls of agar or carrageenan, substances used as thickening agents.
Phaeophyta
Brown Algae
Contains xanthophylls, laminarin, and oils. They have cell walls composed of cellulose and alginic acid, which is another thickening agent. A brown algal spore is motile by means of one "hairy" flagellum and one whiplike flagellum.
Chrysophyta
Golden Algae
yellow-green algaem and diatoms contain chrysolaminarin as a storage product. The silica cell walls of diatoms are arranged in nesting halves called frustules.
Water Molds
have tubular cristae in their mitochondria, cell walls of cellulose, spores having two different flagella, and diploid thalli.
Parasitic helminths
signigicant to microbiologists in part because their infective stages are usually microscopic.
Anthropod Vectors
animals that carry and transmit pathogens.
Ticks and mites (chiggers)
are acrachnids (8 legged arthropods)
Insect Vectors
fleas, lice, bloodsucking flies including mosquitoes and kissing bugs
Haploid nuclei
contains one set of chromosomes
Which of the following sequences reflects the correct order of events in mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Which of the following statements accurately describes prophase?
The cell constructs microtubules to form a spindle.
Multiple nuclear divisions without cytoplasmic divisions result in cells called
coenocytes
Branched, tubular filaments with crosswalls found in large fungi are
septate hyphae
The type of asexual fungal spore that buds from vegetative hyphae is called a
conidiospore
A phycologist studies what?
alternations of generations in algae
The stemlike portion of a seaweed is called its
stipe
Carrageenan is found in the cell walls of which group of algae?
red algea
Chrysolaminarin us a storage product found in which group of microbes?
golden algea
Which of the following features characterizes diatoms?
protective plates of cellulose in their cells
Water molds differ from true fungi in what way?
They have tubular cristae in their mitochondria
The motile feeding stage of a protozoan us called
a trophozoite
Which of the following is common to mitosis and meiosis?
spindle
Which taxon is characterized by "hairy" flagella?
Stramenopila
Mitosis
Diploid nuclei producing diploid nuclei
Meiosis
Diploid nuclei producing haploid nuclei
Homologous Chromosomes
carry similar genes
Crossing over
results in genetic variation
Cytokinesis
Cytoplasmic division
Chitin
Fungal cell wall component
Basisiospore
Fungal spore formed ub club shaped hyphae
Zygospore
Diploid fungal zygote wutg a thick wall
Thallus
Fungal body
Ascospore
Fungal spore formed in sac
Lichen
Fungus + Algea or bacterium
Chlorophyta
Green Algea
Rhodophyta
Red Algea
Chrysophyta
yellow-green algea
Phaeophyta
Brown Algea
Cercozoa
Foraminifera
Balantidium coli
Pathogenic Protozoan Ciliate (the only one); usually occurs in pigs; also in rodents and primates
Balantidium coli
Symptoms: may cause diarrhea, abdominal pain and weight loss with intestinal lesions; spread by fecal contamination of water and food
Plasmodium sp.
Pathogenic Protozoan Apicomplexan; causes Malaria; parasite multiplies and destroys red blood cells and liver cells
Plasmodium sp.
Symptoms: intense chills, fever, sweating with headache and diarrhea; may be chronic disease with periodic relapses; severity depends on species, mild to fatal; spread by bite of infected mosquito
Cryptosporidium parvum
Pathogenic Protozoan Apicomplexan; carried in G.I. tract with no symptoms in up to about 30% of the population; spread by fecally contaminated water (especially around livestock), or direct fecal-oral transmission
Cryptosporidium parvum
Symptoms: may cause severe diarrhea, abdominal cramping, muscle pain, headache, and weight loss
Toxoplasma gondii
Pathogenic Protozoan Apicomplexan; up to 40% of U.S. population may be infected, also occurs in many mammals and birds; usually acquired by ingesetion of poorly-cooked meat, but also from fecally-contaminated soil or plants (especially by cats)
Toxoplasma gondii
Symptoms: Usually asymptomatic, except in the immunocompromised, or fetus where can cause severe brain damage and blindness
Gymnodinium sp. and Gonyaulax sp.
Pathogenic Protozoan Dinoflagellate; produce Neurotoxins; when present in abundance in marine waters they cause "Red Tide" resulting in large fish die-offs
Gymnodinium sp. and Gonyaulax sp.
humans can be poisoned by eating shellfish from infested areas because the shellfish eat the Dinoflagellates and concentrate the toxins
Pfiesteria sp.
Pathogenic Protozoan Dinoflagellate; produces VERY potent neurotoxin that may cause illness from handling infected fish or inhaling contaminated air
Pfiesteria sp.
Symptoms: Confusion, memory loss, headache, breathing difficulty, skin rash, muscle cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea
Entamoeba histolytica
Pathogenic Protozoan Amoeba; carried with no symptoms in G.I. tract of about 10% of population; may spread via blood, and cause lesions in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and brain; usually fatal if untreated; spread by ingestion of fecally-contaminated water or food, or oral-anal sex
Entamoeba histolytica
Symptoms: depend on the strain and health of the person, ranges from asymptomatic to Amebic Dysentery- results in colitis, appendicitis, and ulceration of intestinal mucosa; resulting in severe diarrhea with mucous and blood
Acanthamoeba sp. and Naegleria sp.
Pathogenic Protozoan Amoeba; usually free-living in sediments of warm freshwater; may cause fatal brain infections; enter through broken skin or mucosa (A.), or intact nasal mucosa (N.); death a few days to a few weeks after neurological symptoms appear
Trypanosoma brucei
Pathogenic Protozoan Flagellate; causes African Sleeping Sickness; spread by bite of infected Tsetse Fly feeding on domestic or wild animal reservoirs
Trypanosoma brucei
Symptoms: untreated parasite invades the CNS, resulting in headache, extreme drowsiness, neurological abnormalities, coma, and death
T. brucei gambiense
found in west Africa
T. brucei rhodesiense
found in east and south Africa
Trypanosoma cruzi
Pathogenic Protozoan Flagellate; causes Chagas' Disease; primarily seen in Central and South America (some outbreaks in California and Texas); spread by bite wound contamination from feces of infected Triatomid Bug (Kissing Bug); Armadillos and Opossums are the primary reservoirs; Parasite-induced heart disease is the major cause of death in Latin America
Trypanosoma cruzi
Symptoms: untreated results in myocarditis and eventually Congestive Heart Failure due to parasite accumulating in the heart muscle
Leishmania sp.
Pathogenic Protozoan Flagellate; causes Leishmaniasis (L.) in Central and South America, Central and South Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Middle East; Severity depends on the species
Cutaneous L.
"Baghdad Boil"; results in painless skin ulcers usually with scarring due to bacterial infection
Mucocutaneous L.
results in skin, oral, and nasal mucous membrane ulcers with permanent disfiguring damage
Visceral L.
Kalazar; results in liver, spleen, bone marrow (with severe anemia), and lymph node infection which is usually fatal if untreated, unlike other two forms
Leishmania sp.
spread by bite of Sand Flies; reservoirs are rodents and dogs
Giardia intestinalis
(G. lamblia)- causes one of the more common water-borne G.I. tract diseases in the U.S.
Giardia intestinalis
Pathogenic Protozoan Flagellate; parasite in the G.I. tracts of humans and animals (domestic and wild) worldwide, also in water, soil, and contaminated objects, since spread by fecal contamination, including from infected dogs
Giardia intestinalis
Symptoms: disease can vary from asymptomatic to severe with watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, and low fever; occasionally tissue damage and major fluid loss
Trichomonas vaginalis
Pathogenic Protozoan Flagellate; worldwide, causes MOST COMMON PROTOZOAN DISEASE IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES-VAGINITIS in females; transmitted sexually
Trichomonas vaginalis
Symptoms: in females: pus-filled, odorous discharge, vaginal and cervical lesions, pain with urination and intercourse and found in the vulva and vagina; in males: usually asymptomatic and found in the prostate and urethra
Mycoses
diseases of plants and animals, including humans that 30% of fungi cause
Neurospora sp.
species of fungi that was used by Beadle and Tatum to show that one gene codes for one enzyme
Thallus
vegetative (nutrient-obtaining) body of fungus; in yeasts, it is unicellular, small, and globular; in molds, it is large and composed of Hyphae
Hyphae
long, branched, tubular filaments
Septate
hyphae divided into uninucleate cells of cross walls (most hyphae are)
Septa
cross-walls in Septate hyphae
Aseptate
hyphae that have no cross-walls and are multinucleate
Coenocytic
multinucleate (term used in the Aseptate definition)
Mycelium
intertwined mass of Hyphae; typical of most mold growth
Dimorphic Fungi
those producing both yeastlike and moldlike Thalli
Saprobes
most fungi are these- they absorb nutrients from dead organisms
Haustoria
modified Hyphae that penetrate host tissue; they allow some fungi to derive nutrients from living plants and animals
aerobic
What are most Fungi in terms of oxygen?
Yeasts
bud in a manner similar to prokaryotic budding; form pseudohyphae (series of buds that remain attached to one another and to parent cell forming short chain, as in Candida albicans
Molds (Filamentous Fungi)
Their asexual reproduction includes the production of lightweight spores that differ in their mode of development; Sporangiospores, Chlamydospores, and Conidiospores
Sporangiospores
those that form within a sac (Sporangium) at the end of a stalk attached to a Hyphae
Chlamydospores
thick-walled spores that form within Hyphae
Conidiospores (or Conidia)
naked spore (not within sac) that form at the ends or sides of Hyphae as fragments, buds, or in chains at the end of a stalk
Sexual reproduction in Fungi
Haploid cells form a (+) Thallus and a (-) Thallus that fuse to form a Dikaryon, eventually, 2 Haploid nuclei fuse within the Dikaryon forming a diploid nucleus, which undergoes Meiosis to form 2 haploid nuclei; Some then develop into (+) spores or (-) spores and on into (+) or (-) Thalli
Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Deuteromycetes
The Four Divisions of Fungi; equivalent to Phyla in other Kingdoms, and based on type of Sexual spore produced
Zygomycota
Most are Saprobes; the rest are obligate parasites of insects and other fungi; they reproduce sexually by forming Zygosporangia; Examples include Rhizopus nigricans, Nosema sp., and Microsporidium sp.
Rhizopus nigricans
black bread mold; example of a fungus from the Zygomycota division of fungi
Nosema sp.
obligate intracellular parasite on insects, such as silkworms, honeybees, and grasshoppers; example of a fungus from the Zygomycota division of fungi
Nosema sp. and Microsporidium
can cause disease in immunocompromised people; example of a fungus from the Zygomycota division of fungi
Ascomycota
Division of fungi that reproduce sexually by forming Ascospores within sacs (Asci); Many are Saprobes; most food spoilage is due to fungi in this group
Dutch Elm Diseases and Chestnut Blight
these are fungal plant pathogens caused by members of the Ascomycota division of fungi
Claviceps purpurea
Fungal Plant Pathogen from the Ascomycota division of fungi that grows on grain and forms the toxin LSD (which causes abortions in cattle and Hallucinogen in humans)
Penicillium sp.
Useful member of the Ascomycota division of fungi that is the source of a very important antibiotic discovered by Fleming
Saccharomyces sp.
Useful member of the Ascomycota division of fungi that produces ethanol and CO2 via Alcohol Fermentation
Tuber sp.
Useful member of the Ascomycota division of fungi that is the Mycorrhizae of oak and beech tree roots; an edible delicacy (Truffles)
Basidiomycota
Division of Fungi that reproduce sexually by forming Basidiospores attache to ends of club-shaped Basidia, which are part of the fruiting body, the Basidiocarp (cap or umbrella-like top)
Basidiomycota
Division of Fungi; most are Saprobes and are important decomposers of Cellulose in Lignin in dead plants; examples are edible and poisonous mushrooms, puffballs, etc., some plant pathogens causing rusts and smuts, and a human pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans
Amanita sp.
Example of a highly toxic mushroom from the Basidiomycota division of fungi (AKA "Death Cap")
Cryptococcus neoformans
yeast that is the leading cause of fungal meningitis (Basidiomycota division example)
Deuteromycetes
Heterogeneous collection of fungi whose sexual stages are unknown, although an analysis of their rRNA sequences indicates that most belng in the Ascomycota division
Deuteromycetes
Division of Fungi in which most are terrestrial Saprobes, or pathogens of plants or other fungi
Trichophyton sp.
human pathogen from the Deuteromycetes division of fungi that causes "ringworm"
Lichens
partnerships between Fungi and photosynthetic microbes (Green Algae or Cyanobacteria)
Lichens
abundant throughout the world, particularly in pristine habitats (do not grow in polluted environments); grow on soil, rocks, leaves, tree bark, othe Lichens, and even on the backs of tortoises; almost every habitat
Fruticose, Crustose, and Foliose
Three basic shapes of Lichens
Fruticose
erect or hanging cylinders
Crustose
cover substrate and may grow into it
Foliose
leaflike with margins free of substrate
Lichens
Important in the creation of soil from rocks; eaten by many animals; used in the production of foods, dyes, clothing, perfumes, and medicines
Algae
Simple, Eukaryotic, Phototrophic organisms that carry out Oxygenic Photosynthesis using Chlorophyll a (to capture the energy of light); have sexual reproductive structure; and differ widely in distribution, morphology, reproduction, and biochemical traits
Gamete
every algal cell becomes a ___________ (which is a unique characteristic of Algae) which fuses with another to form a zygote
Algae
Most are aquatic, living in the Photic Zone (that penetrated by sunlight) of fresh, brackish, and salt water
Algae
Have Accessory Photosynthetic pigments that trap light energy and pass it to Chlorophyll a (a Primary Pigment)
Algae
Are Unicellular, Colonial, or have simple Multicellular Bodies (Thalli)
Mitosis followed by Cytokinesis
Asexual Reproduction in Unicellular Algae involves what?
Fragmentation
How may Multicellular Algae reproduce asexually?
Algae
Many Multicellular ______ reproduce sexually with Alternation of Generations of Haploid and Diploid individuals
How Water Molds differ from Fungi
They have tubular Cristae in their Mitochondria, their Cell Walls are made of Cellulose instead of Chitin, their spores have 2 Flagella-one whip-like and one hairy, and they have true diploid thalli
Water Molds
Decompose dead animals in aquatic habitats and return nutrients to the environment; some plant pathogens of grapes, tobacco, and potatoes
Phytophthora infestans
water mold plant pathogen that infected and devastated potato crop in Ireland resulting in the great famine there and major Irish immigration to U.S. and Canada
Parasitic Helminths
have microscopic infective and diagnostic stages - usually eggs or larvae
Vectors
animals such as ticks, lice, flies, and mosquitos that carry and transmit microscopic pathogens from host to host

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