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study of fungi


is there peptidoglycan in fungi cell walls?


are sterols present in cell membrane of fungi?


all fungi are BLANK; require organic compounds for energy and carbon

Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic

fungi are usually BLANK in terms of their oxygen needs and use


body of a mold or fleshy fungus


thallus consisting of long filaments of cells joined together

Septate hyphae

hyphae with cross-walls which divide molds into distinct uninucleate cell-like units

Coencytic hyphae

hyphae contain no septa and appear as long, continuous cells with many nuclei


visible to the naked eye, hyphae grow into a filamentous mass

Vegetative hypha

portion of hypha which contains nutrients

Reproductive or aerial hyphae

portion of hypha concerned with reproduction


nonfilamentous, unicellular, spherical or oval, frequently found as white powdery coating on fruits and leaves, facultative anaerobic growth, survive in various elements

Budding yeasts

yeasts that divide unevenly, saccharomyces

Asexual and sexual

what forms of reproduction are done by fungi?


formation of BLANK leads to both sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi


do fungal spores have the same properties and characteristics as bacterial endospores


are bacterial endospores more or less tolerant to extreme environmental issues than fungal spores?

Asexual spores

spores formed by the hyphae of one organism; genetically identical to parent

Sexual spores

spores result from the fusion of nuclei from two opposite mating strains of the same species of fungus; genetic similarities to both parents

Asexual spores

conidia, arthroconidia, blastoconidia, chlamydoconidia, sporangiospores


type of asexual spore, unicellular or multicellular spore NOT enclosed in a sac, produced in a chain at the end of a conidiophore, spores produced by aspergillus


type of asexual spore, formed within a sac, produced by Rhizopus


sac at the end of of an aerial hypha (sporangiophore)


Fungi are more resistant to osmotic pressure than bacteria, True or False.


Do fungi need more or less moisture to grow than bactera?


which needs less nitrogen to grow, fungi or bacteria?


are fungi capable of metabolizing complex carbohydrates? True or False?

Sexual, asexual

Ascospores differ from conidia in the manner that, ascospores are BLANK, and conidia are BLANK

systemic, subcutaneous, cutaneous, superficial, opportunistic

5 classifications of mycoses

Systemic mycoses

fungal infections deep within the body, usually from fungi living in soil, inhalation of spores

Subcutaneous mycoses

fungal infections beneath the skin caused by saprophytic fungi living in soil and vegetation

Cutaneous mycoses

fungal infections of the epidermis, hair and nails; also known as dermatophytes


dermatophytes secrete enzyme keratinase to degrade what protein found in skin, hair and nails?

Superficial mycoses

fungal infections along the hair shafts and top layer epidermal cells

Opportunistic pathogen

generally harmless in its normal habitat, but can become pathogenic in a host who is seriously debilitated or traumatized


zygomycota/conjugation fungi, example of mycosis is black bread mold, produces sporangiospores (asexual spores)


causes aspergillosis, opportunistic mycoses, occurs in people with debilitating lung diseases or cancer and have inhaled the spores,

Cryptococcus neoformans

usually only infect immunocompromised patients, AIDS patients, inhaled fungus in bird droppings, effects central nervous system, causes meningitis and death at high rates

Candida albicans

pathogen that is the most common cause of yeast infections


fungal skin infection, causes itchy red raised scaly patches of skin that can blister or ooze


unicellular or filamentous, aquatic, need moisture, simple eurkaryotic photoautotrophs, lack tissues of plants, produce sexually or asexually

Holdfasts, stipes, blades

3 structural parts of algae


does algae use photosynthesis to produce nutrition, True or False?

Chlorophyll a

what is responsible for the photosynthesis in algae?


unicellular, eukaryotic chemoheterotrophic, usually require a host to feed off of

Trophozoite stage

feeding and growing stage of protozoa, feeds upon bacteria and small particulate nutrients

Fission, budding, schizogony

3 methods of parasite asexual reproduction


multiple fission; nucleus undergoes multiple division before the cell divides

Protozoan conjugation

two cells fuse, and a haploid nucleus from each cell migrates to the other cell, this haploid micronucleus fuses with the haploid micronucleus within the cell, parent cells separate each now a fertilized cell, later divide into daughter cells


production of a protective capsule called a cyst


which category of protozoa produce oocysts?

Aerobic heterotrophs

what category are protozoa in in terms of nutrition?


mouthlike opening of ciliates; used to ingest food


extending blunt, lobelike projections of amoebas used to move


eukaryotes that lack mitochondria, but have mitosomes


unique organelle in archaezoa which resemble mitochondria

Trichomonas vaginalis

archaezoa infection, found in the female vagina and male urinary tract

Giardia lamblia

parasitic archaezoa, causes Giardiasis, found in the small intestine of humans and other mammals, excreted in the feces as a cyst

chronic diarrhea, keratoconjunctivitis

2 problems that microspora cause

Entamoeba histolytica

only pathogenic amoeba found in the human intestine, causes amoebic dysentry, transmitted human to human by eating the cysts in infected feces


obligate intracellular parasites, not motile in mature form, presence of a complex of special organelles at the tips of their cells


apicomplexa which causes malaria, transmitted through mosquitoes to humans


infective stage of plasmodium

Intermediate host

the host in which the parasite undergoes asexual reproduction

Definitive host

host that harbors the sexually reproducing stage


definitive host of malaria


intermediate host of malaria

Plasmodium vivax

most common form of malaria, life cycle is very quick, sometimes referred to as "dormant malaria," develops in mosquitoes at lower temperature

Plasmodium falciparum

most dangerous form of malaria, very recent form or malaria making it more dangerous because humans haven't had a chance for our bodies to become used to this form of malaria, referred to as "malignant malaria"

5 apicomplexa human parasites

plasmodium, babesia microti, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium, cyclospora cayetanensis


apicomplexa, causes diarrhea, transmitted to humans through feces of cows, rodents, dogs and cats

Cyclospora cayetanensis

apicomplexa similar to cryptosporidium, responsible for 300 cases of diarrhea associated with snow peas in the US and Canada


euglenozoa, causes lesions either on the skin or on the organs depending on the type, caused by a bite from a female sandfly

Chagas' disease

euglenozoa, known as American trypanosomiasis, protozoan disease of the cardiovascular system, transmitted by the "kissing bug" (reduviid bug-arthropod)

African trypanosomiasis

euglenozoa, African sleeping disease, transmitted by the bite of tsetse fly


blood parasites, transmitted by blood-feeding insects, found in circulatory system of host

Platyhelminths (flatworms), Nematoda (roundworms)

two major categories of parasitic helminthes

Helminth characteristics

lack a digestive system, nervous system reduced, locomotion reduced or completely lacking, reproductive system is often complex


adult helminths where male reproductive organs are in one individual and female reproductive organs are in another


one animal has both male and female reproductive organs


flukes, type of platyhelminths, flat, leaf-shaped bodies with ventral and oral suckers to keep them in place, obtain food through outer cuticle (outer layer)


tapeworms, type of platyhelminths, intestinal parasites, do not ingest tissues of host, lack digestive system, absorb food through cuticle


members of phyla nematoda, cylindrical in shape, have complete digestive systems, some free-living, some live off of host

Sexual dimorphism

male and female worms look distinctly different


large nematode, sexual dimorphism, lives in the small intestines of humans exclusively; feeds on semidigested food, infects children when playing in dirt


live in small intestines of humans, eggs are excreted in feces, enters host by penetrating hosts skin (feet), wear shoes to prevent, eventually moves to blood and lymph vessels, then to lungs


caused by nematode, causes heartworm primarily in dogs and cats, can infest humans, comes from mosquito bites


animals characterized by segmented bodies, hard external skeletons, and jointed legs


pathogenic microorganisms carried by arthropods

these are all chracteristics of what?
Chitin/ Cell wall
Lack Chlorophyll (no photosynthesis)


helps roots grow


An organism that uses organic molecules as a source of carbon and energy is called


Aerobic(with oxygen)
facultative (survive in varitey of hostile conditions)
anaerobic (no oxygen)
Low Moisture acidic environements
metabolize complex carbs

these all represent nutrition of what?

nutrition of fungi

body of a mold or fleshy fungus


branching, threadlike LONG FILAMENTS tubes that make up the bodies of multicellular fungi


two forms of growth


Organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter


a structure of a parasitic plant or fungus that penetrates host tissues to obtain food and water


reproduction of fungi is asexual or sexual?


3 types of asexual spores formation

a. Arthroconidia
b. blastoconidia

how do Sporangiospores form?

inside a sac called a sporangium

how do Chlamydospores form?

with a thickened cell wall INSIDE hyphae

name the 2 types of Conidiospores

2 types
a. Arthroconidia
b. blastoconidia

___________are formed by the fragmentation of septate hyphae into single, slightly thickened cells


buds coming off the parent cell are called?


name the 4 classes of Fungi


Ascomycota include what?

sac fungi, molds & yeasts

Basidiomycota are also known as

fungi, mushrooms

fungi having no known sexual stage are called


protozoan asexual reproduction within red blood & liver cells


the division of a cell's cytoplasm is called


unicellular organisms
lack a cell wall. Most are chemoheterotrophes. name this organism


All free-living aquatic and pathogenic protozoa exist as a motile feeding stage called a ______________


many protozoa have a hardy resting stage called a _____, which is characterized by a thick capsule and a low metabolic rate.


chemoheterotrophic: obtaining nutrients by phagocytizing bacteria, decaying organic matter, other protozoa, or the tissues of a host; a few protozoa absorb nutrients from the surrounding water.

protozoa nutrition

reproduce asexually only, by binary fission or schizogony; few are sexual

how do protozoa reproduce?

fertilized egg, diploid (2 sets of chromo's) cell formed from a gamete


haploid (1n, single nucleaus) sex cells


A nucleus that has replicated its DNA divides via a process called , _______


______ is nuclear division of diploid cells that results in four haploid daughter nuclei. sexual reproduction


Taxonomists continue to revise and refine the classification of ______ based on 18S rRNA nucleotide sequencing and features made visible by electron microscopy.


what is a well-known opportunistic pathogenic parabasalid causes severe inflammation of the human vagina?


what do Parabasala lack?


what are the 4 classes of Protozoa?


What do Parabasalas have?

single nucleus and a parabasal body (golgi-like)

what do alveolates have?

cavities called alveoli

what do cilaites of Alveolates have?

cilia and 2 nuclei

what is a well known pond water ciliate?


alveolates called ______ are all pathogens of animals


what does the name of the group apicomplexans refer to?

complex (group) of special organelles that infect at the apex

what do Amoebozoas have?
what do they lack?

Lobe shaped pseudopodia
NO shells

what do Amoebozoas cause?

disease in brains of humans and animals that swim in water containing them

what are 2 Ameobozoas that cause brain disease?

Naegleria and Acanthamoeba

what ameobozoa causes fatal dystentry?


what do slime molds lack?

cell walls

what is the nutrition of a slime mold?


what are the two types of slime molds ?

cellular and plasmodial

Plasmodial slime molds are composed of _________ ______ of _______

multinucleate filaments of cytoplasm.

Cellular slime molds are composed of what?

myxamoebae (amobea like structures)

what do Cellular slime molds composed of myamoebae phagocytize?

bacteria and yeasts

what is a group of euglenozoa called?


how do euglenoids store food?

as a polysaccharide called paramylon

the characteristics of euglenoids are __________,_________ and _________

photoautotrophic, unicellular, chloroplasts

euglenoids contain choroplasts that contain light absorbing pigments
T or F?


what do Euglenoids have that helps maintain shape?

semi-rigid, proteinaceous, helical (spiral) shaped pellicle

what is a pellicle?

a thin multilayered sheath that underlies the cell membrane.

what are Fungi?

chemoheterotrophic eukaryotes with cell walls

do fungi have cell walls?


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