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Define: Demography

The scientific study of population characteristics

We can understand how population is distributed by examining two basic properties-_______& _______.

concentration; density

2/3 of the world's inhabitants are clustered in four regions. They are:

East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe

Define: Cartogram

Maps that depict the size of countries according to population rather than land area

The world's most populous country and the the 4th largest country is ______


The second most populous country is _____


The largest concentration in the west is in _______ and _________

the US and Southeast Canada

2% of the world's population is in ________

West Africa

Define: Ecumene

the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement

Define: Arithmetic density

most frequently used by geographers; total number of objects in an area

Define: Physiological density

the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land

Which of the three types of densities provide a better measure of the relationship between a population and the availability of resources in a society?


Define: Agricultural density

the ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land

_____ have lower agricultural densities because technology and finance allow a few people to farm extensive land areas and feed many people


Define: Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society

Define: Crude Death Rate (CDR)

the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society

Natural Increase Rate (NIR)

the percent by which a population grows in a year (CBR-CDR)

Define: Doubling time

the number of years needed to double a population

More than 95% of natural increase is in ____


Define: Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

measures the number of births in a society; the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years

Define: Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

the annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age, compared with total live births; also per 1000 births

________ measures the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels

Life expectancy

Define: Demographic transition

process with several stages, and every country is in one of them

Stage 1 and 4 of the demographic transition is characterized by _______

low growth

Stage 2 of the demographic transition is characterized by _______

high growth;CDR plummets while CBR remains the same

Stage 3 of the demographic transition is characterized by______

moderate growth; birth rate starts declining with death rates but CBR is still greater than the CDR

Stage 1 of the demographic has ____ birth and death rates while stage 4 has _____ birth and death rates


Define: Agricultural revolution

time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied completely on hunting and gathering

Countries entered stage 2 after 1750 because of the _______

Industrial revolution

Define: Medical revolution

medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to LDCs

CBR declines in stage 3 because of changes in _______

social customs

Define: Zero Population Growth (ZPG)

when CBR=CDR

The ZPG replacement level is ____


Define: Stage 5

higher death rates than birth rates and irreversible population decline

Population in a country is influenced by the demographic transition in two ways:_______ and __________

the percentage of the population in each age group; the distribution of males and females

Define: Population pyramid

bar graph that displays a country's age and gender groups

The shape of the pyramid is determined by the _____


Define: Dependency ratio

the number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years (0-14,65+)

Define: Sex ratio

the number of males per hundred females

English economist ______________ was the first to argue that the world's rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food supplies

Thomas Malthus

Thomas Malthus wrote ___________________

"An Essay on the Principle of Population."(1798)

Emphasizing reliance on _________ and distribution of _________ has reduced birth rates

economic development; contraceptives

Define: Epidemiologic transition

focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition

Define: Epidemiology

the branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality

Epidemiologic Transition stages 1 and 2

infectious and parasitic diseases were principal causes of human death

Define: Black Plague

transmitted to humans by fleas from migrating infected rats

Define: Pandemic (stage 2)

disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population

Epidemiologic Transition stage 3

the stage of degenerative and human created diseases. Characterized by a decrease in death from infectious diseases and an increase in chronic disorders

Epidemiologic Transition stage 4

stage of delayed degenerative diseases

Epidemiologic Transition stage 5

The stage of reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases through evolution, poverty, and improved travel

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