50 terms

Unit 2: Population

Define: Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics
We can understand how population is distributed by examining two basic properties-_______& _______.
concentration; density
2/3 of the world's inhabitants are clustered in four regions. They are:
East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe
Define: Cartogram
Maps that depict the size of countries according to population rather than land area
The world's most populous country and the the 4th largest country is ______
The second most populous country is _____
The largest concentration in the west is in _______ and _________
the US and Southeast Canada
2% of the world's population is in ________
West Africa
Define: Ecumene
the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Define: Arithmetic density
most frequently used by geographers; total number of objects in an area
Define: Physiological density
the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land
Which of the three types of densities provide a better measure of the relationship between a population and the availability of resources in a society?
Define: Agricultural density
the ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land
_____ have lower agricultural densities because technology and finance allow a few people to farm extensive land areas and feed many people
Define: Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
Define: Crude Death Rate (CDR)
the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
the percent by which a population grows in a year (CBR-CDR)
Define: Doubling time
the number of years needed to double a population
More than 95% of natural increase is in ____
Define: Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
measures the number of births in a society; the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
Define: Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
the annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age, compared with total live births; also per 1000 births
________ measures the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels
Life expectancy
Define: Demographic transition
process with several stages, and every country is in one of them
Stage 1 and 4 of the demographic transition is characterized by _______
low growth
Stage 2 of the demographic transition is characterized by _______
high growth;CDR plummets while CBR remains the same
Stage 3 of the demographic transition is characterized by______
moderate growth; birth rate starts declining with death rates but CBR is still greater than the CDR
Stage 1 of the demographic has ____ birth and death rates while stage 4 has _____ birth and death rates
Define: Agricultural revolution
time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied completely on hunting and gathering
Countries entered stage 2 after 1750 because of the _______
Industrial revolution
Define: Medical revolution
medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to LDCs
CBR declines in stage 3 because of changes in _______
social customs
Define: Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
when CBR=CDR
The ZPG replacement level is ____
Define: Stage 5
higher death rates than birth rates and irreversible population decline
Population in a country is influenced by the demographic transition in two ways:_______ and __________
the percentage of the population in each age group; the distribution of males and females
Define: Population pyramid
bar graph that displays a country's age and gender groups
The shape of the pyramid is determined by the _____
Define: Dependency ratio
the number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years (0-14,65+)
Define: Sex ratio
the number of males per hundred females
English economist ______________ was the first to argue that the world's rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food supplies
Thomas Malthus
Thomas Malthus wrote ___________________
"An Essay on the Principle of Population."(1798)
Emphasizing reliance on _________ and distribution of _________ has reduced birth rates
economic development; contraceptives
Define: Epidemiologic transition
focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Define: Epidemiology
the branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality
Epidemiologic Transition stages 1 and 2
infectious and parasitic diseases were principal causes of human death
Define: Black Plague
transmitted to humans by fleas from migrating infected rats
Define: Pandemic (stage 2)
disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
Epidemiologic Transition stage 3
the stage of degenerative and human created diseases. Characterized by a decrease in death from infectious diseases and an increase in chronic disorders
Epidemiologic Transition stage 4
stage of delayed degenerative diseases
Epidemiologic Transition stage 5
The stage of reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases through evolution, poverty, and improved travel