121 terms

RBT Final Exam

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

ABA Therapist
Refers to the behavior tech that works under the BCBA and implements behavior plans.
ABC's of Behavior (AKA: 3 term contingency)
Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence
Acquisition Task
A target that's in the process of being taught. This behavior is not yet a known skill.
Adaptive Skills
Self-help skills the child uses for daily living.
Antecedent
What happens directly before the behavior or trigger.
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Design, implementation, and evaluation of an environment to produce improvements in behavior.
Applied Behavioral Intervention (ABI)
Evidence-based practice that is derived from ABA and are used to address both interfering and on-task behaviors.
Assessment of Basic Language & Learning Skills (ABLLS)
An assessment tool created by Sundberg & Partington that allows you to assess across 25 varied domains (gross motor skills, receptive skills, etc) to get a complete picture of a child's functioning level, strengths, and deficits.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
AKA: Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD).

A group of neurobiological disorders that affect a child's ability to interact, communicate, relate, play, imagine, and learn. These disorders not only affect brain development/function, but may also be related to immunological, gastrointestinal, and metabolic problems.
BACB
The Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Nonprofit established in 1998 to meet professional credentialing.
Behavior
Observable & measurable responses to cues in the environment. The future frequency of these responses are influenced by the consequences that follow them.
Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
A plan to manage a child's problematic behavior. Includes fostering positive behavior, environmental changes, reinforcements, and other necessary supports.
Childhood Autism Rating Scale, 2nd Edition (CARS-2)
Behavior rating scale that helps to identify children with autism and determine symptom severity through quantifiable ratings based on direct observation. For ages 2+
Chaining
Used to teach multi-step skills in which the steps involved are defined and numbered. The steps are defined through task analysis. (EX: Washing hands- 1st turn on water, 2nd pump soap into hands, 3rd rub hands together, etc)
Total Task Analysis
The breaking down of a complex skill into smaller, teachable units.
Forward Chaining
Teaching each step in order and only progressing when the individual step is mastered (step 1, step 1 and 2, step 1 and 2 and 3, etc.)
Backward Chaining
When teaching a chain behavior, the last step is taught first and the learner learns the steps in reverse. (Ex: drawing a smiley face)
Co-morbidity
Having multiple diagnoses at the same time. (EX: child having Autism, OCD, and ADHD)
Compulsions
Deliberate repetitive behaviors that follow specific rules, such as pertaining to cleaning, checking, or counting.
Consequence
What happens directly after a behavior. Can be good or bad.
Deprivation
An ABA principle which states that the more deprived of a particular reinforcer, the more powerful that reinforcer will be.
Discrete Trial Training (DTT)
A method of instruction in which a task is isolated and taught to an individual by repeatedly presenting the same task to the person.
Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
a stimulus, associated with reinforcement, that exerts control over a particular form of behavior.

(EX: washing your hands in hot water- The hot water tap (faucet) is the SD in this situation because selecting the hot tap will lead to the delivery of reinforcement (hot water).
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI)
Intervention approach that uses ABA principles and is delivered frequently (20-40 hrs weekly) to young children (under age 5) with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Echolalia
Repetition of words, phrases, intonation, or sounds of the speech of others.
Expressive Language
The use of verbal behavior/speech to communicate thoughts, ideas, and feelings with others.
Extinction
Withholding of reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior, resulting in reduction of that behavior.
Extinction Burst
An immediate increase in the frequency of a response when reinforcement is withheld (extinction).
Fine Motor Skills
Is the coordination of small muscles, in movements-usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers-with the eyes.
Gross Motor Skills
Movement and coordination of the arms, legs, and other large body parts and movements.
Functional Analysis of Behavior
AKA: Functional Behavior Analysis (FBA)
The analysis of a child's inappropriate behavior and discovery of its cause. Includes documenting the ABC's.
Gestures
Nonverbal behaviors used to convey/exchange info.
Hyper-Responsiveness
Abnormal sensitivity or OVER reactivity to sensory input.
Hypo-Responsiveness
Abnormal insensitivity or UNDER reactivity to sensory input, in which the brain fails to register incoming stimuli appropriately so that the child doesn't respond to the sensory stimulation.
Idiosyncratic Language
Language with private meanings or only understandable to those familiar with its origins.
Individual Education Plan (IEP)
Individualized curriculum plan that school age kids have if they are in special education.
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
Plan for kids (birth - 3 years) that ensures appropriate early-intervention services for infants, toddlers, and their families
Individual Plan of Service (IPOS)
OR
Individual Service Plans (ISP)
Provides enhanced/detailed info. for individuals that is HIPPA compliant. Includes program definition, data collection, and report generation for goal tracking.
Intervention
The plan of action/strategy used to change behavior.
Intraverbal
Verbal response to other's verbal behavior. (EX: saying "car" because someone asked "what do you ride in?")
Mand
Is a request. (Ex: Asking for a car because you want a car).
Tact
Is labeling things. (EX: Saying "Balloon" because you see a balloon).
Listener Responding
(Receptive Language)
Responding nonverbally to other's instructions. (EX: Getting the red lego when told, "get the red lego.").
Motor Imitation
Imitation of motor behavior (EX: pushing a car after watching someone else push a car)
Listener responding by Function, Feature, and Class (LRFFC)
Receptive identification of items by their feature, function, or class. (EX: Selecting a pic of a car when asked, "what has wheels?").
Natural Environment Teaching (NET)
Learning that occurs in the natural environment such as playtime, during dinner, at the bus stop, etc.
Occupational Therapist
Professional who evaluates fine motor skills and self-care skills. Can also work on sensory issues and feeding difficulties.
Perseveration
Repetition of a particular response, such as a word, phrase, or gesture, despite the absence or cessation of a stimulus, usually caused by brain injury or other organic disorder.
Physical Therapist
Professional who evaluates gross motor skills, strength, balance, coordination, and mobility.
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)
A communication system (set of cards) for nonverbal individuals that helps with requests and overall communication.
Pointing
Typically developed by 12 months. Lack of this skill is one sign of autism.
Pragmatics
Social rules for using functional spoken language in a meaningful context or conversation.
Prompt
Form of assistance or cue given to help complete a task.
Full Physical Prompt
Direct physical contact used to assist client in target behavior. (EX: Told to, "wave." The teacher physically waves the learners hand).
Gestural Prompt
May include pointing, looking at, or touching item in order to assist client with target behavior.
Partial Physical Prompt
Provides some assistance to guide the learner through part of the requested activity. (EX: Told to, "clap hands." The teacher gently touches each of the learner's two hands and gently nudges the learner's hands toward each other).
Positional Prompt
Positions correct response in a way that the student is more likely to choose (i.e. closer to responder)
Verbal Prompt
Using "vocalizations" to indicate the desired response. Can be an utterance such as sound or part of a word, many words, or even as long as a paragraph
Visual Prompt
Stimuli which are visible to learners and can be in written form or illustrations which increase the likelihood of the target behavior.
Prompt Dependent
When an individual has become reliant on being assisted with a task and stops attempting to do the task independently.
Prosody
The rhythm and melody of spoken language expressed through rate, pitch, stress, inflection, or intonation.
Punisher
any event that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior that proceeds it.
Positive Punishment
Any event that is ADDED after a behavior that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior occurring again. (EX: Giving more chores when a kid forgets to clean his room).
Negative Punishment
Any event that is REMOVED after a behavior that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior occurring again. (EX: A child is removed from a favorite class because they were being disruptive).
Cost Response
The withdrawal of specified amounts of reinforcer immediately after the production of a challenging behavior. (EX: taking away a point/token from a youngster's collection because of a rude remark or failure to stay on task)
Reinforcement
Anything that follows a behavior and INCREASES the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
Positive Reinforcement
ADDING something to the environment to INCREASE the future probability of the behavior. (EX: A dad gives his daughter candy for cleaning up toys. Future Behavior: Cleaning up toys will increase in order to receive the candy).
Negative Reinforcement
REMOVING/AVOIDING something aversive from the environment to INCREASE the future probability of the behavior. (EX: Kyle has wet hands. He rubs hands on towel. Water is removed from his hands.- Future behavior: Kyle will rub hands on a towel when they are wet).
Receptive Language
The ability to understand/comprehend words and sentences others use.
Satiation
When a reinforcer loses its effectiveness due to overuse.
Self-Stimulating Behaviors (SSB) or "Stimming"
Stereotyped or repetitive movements or posturing of the body. (EX: hand flapping, rocking, pacing, twisting hair, etc).
Sensory Defensiveness
Abnormal reaction to ordinary sensory input.
Social Reciprocity
The back-and-forth flow of social interaction.
Stereotyped Behaviors/Language
An abnormal /excessive repetition of an action or phrase carried out in the same way over time.
Target Behavior
The behavior of interest you are trying to increase or decrease.
Task Reduction
Reducing the demands put upon an individual in an effort to avoid/decrease frustration levels.
Errorless Teaching
Using prompting right away to teach the correct response.
4 Functions of Behavior
-Escape/Avoidance
-Attention
-Seeking access to items/activity
-Sensory stimulation
Differential Reinforcement
Reinforcing only the appropriate response (or behavior you wish to increase) and applying extinction to all other responses.
4 procedures that incorporate reinforcement to address disruptive behaviors
-Diff. Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors (DRI)
-Diff. Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors (DRA)
-Diff. Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO)
-Diff. Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL)
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors (DRI)
Reinforce an appropriate behavior that interferes with the inappropriate behavior and ignore inappropriate behavior. (Disturbing behavior CAN'T occur simultaneously)

EX: Kid self-stems by mouthing hand (ignore). He is taught to play with a toy instead (reinforce). Kid can't mouth his hand b/c his hands are busy with the toy.
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
Reinforce an alternative behavior to the inappropriate behavior and ignore the inappropriate behavior.
(Unlike DRI, target behavior CAN occur simultaneously with disturbing behavior)

EX: Working on an assignment (reinforce) is an alternative to walking around the classroom (ignore).
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
Ignore problem behavior while reinforcing ANY appropriate replacement behavior within a defined period of TIME.

EX: Kid talks out in class. He is told to "not talk out." For every 10 min. in an hour he can do this, he will receive 2 minutes of extra free time (reinforcer). No reinforcer is given if he talks out at any time during the set interval and the problem behavior is ignored.
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL)
Reinforce the individual only after the target behavior occurs at a predetermined low rate.

EX: Kid asks too many questions which disrupts the class. Question limit is set at 5. If kid can limit her questions to 5, she can help set up the next activity (reinforcement). If kid goes above the 5 question limit, the extra questions are ignored and another student sets up the next activity.
3 Direct Measurement Types
-Event Recording (Frequency and Intensity)
-Duration Recording (Total Duration and Latency)
-Interval Recording (Partial and Whole Interval, Momentary Time Sampling)
Frequency Recording
-Observe continuously throughout session and tally the # of occurrences. (For low rate behaviors)
-USE: When behavior is uniform and has a clear beginning/end.

EX: Spitting, Kicking
Intensity Recording
-Observe cont. throughout session and record it immediately as it occurs. (For low rate behaviors)
-USE: When behavior is uniform and has a clear beginning/end.

EX: How hard someone hit, voice volume, pencil pressure
Total Duration Recording
-Measure how long the behavior lasts from beginning to end.
-USE: To increase or decrease duration of target behavior.

EX: Tantrums, On-task behavior, Interacting with peers
Latency Recording
-Record the time that occurs b/w the SD and the response.
-USE: When behavior has a clear beginning. To change the latency of the response.

EX: Following directions, Responding to peers questions
Partial Interval Recording
-Check off interval if the behavior occurs at ANY point during the interval.
-USE: For non-uniform behaviors that you are trying to DECREASE.

EX: Scripting (reciting lines from movies, books, commercials, etc)
Whole Interval Recording
-Check off interval if the behavior occurs throughout the WHOLE interval.
-USE: For behaviors that we want to INCREASE and that have no clear beginning/end.

EX: Participating in game with peers
Momentary Time Sample
-Look for behavior during a pre-designated point of the interval and notice whether the behavior is occurring at that precise moment.
-USE: When data collection is hard due to time constraints or high rate of occurrence making the count difficult to take.

EX: Echolalia
Indirect Measurement
-Based on memory

EX: Interviews, Rating, Scales, Surveys
Outcome Recording
-Type of Indirect Measurement
-Leaves behind a product or result.

EX: Was the car washed?
Yes, because it looks clean (result).

EX: Did kid do participate in art class today?
Yes, because I see her drawing (product).
Which prompt is hardest to fade?
Verbal Prompt
Instructional Control
-When the child readily complies with your instructions.
-Session led by tech, not child.
Shaping
Reinforcing approximations of target behavior.
Motivating Operation (MO)
-Antecedent stimulus that temporarily alters the value of a reinforcer (makes reinforcer more/less valuable).

EX: Kid jogs 2 miles (MO). Afterwards he is very thirsty and drinks a lot of water- Jogging temp. increases the value of water.
Setting Events
Complex antecedents that do not occur immediately prior to problem behavior or are ongoing, but still have influence on said behavior.

EX: Ear infection, lack of sleep, medicine changes)
4 Types of Intermittent Schedules
-Fixed-Ratio (FR)
-Fixed Interval (FI)
-Variable-Ratio (VR)
-Variable-Interval (VI)
Fixed-Ratio Schedule (FR)
-Reinforcement should be delivered after a constant or "fixed" number of correct responses.

EX: FR3= Reinforcement after every 3rd correct response, FR7= Reinforcement after every 7th correct response, etc.
Variable Ratio Schedule (VR)
-Reinforcement will "vary" but must average out at a specific number.
-Schedule most resistant to extinction.

EX: Slot machine

EX: A "VR2" schedule might give reinforcement after 1 correct response, then after 3 more correct responses, then 2 more, then 1 more and finally after 3 more correct responses.
Overall there were a total of 10 correct responses (1 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 3 = 10), reinforcement was delivered 5 times and so reinforcement was delivered for every 2 correct responses on average (10 ÷ 5 = 2).
Fixed-Interval Schedule (FI)
-The first response is reinforced only AFTER a set amount of time has ENDED.
-This schedule causes high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but much slower responding immediately after the delivery of the reinforcer.

EX: An employee receives a paycheck (reinforcement) every seven days, which may result in a higher response rate as payday approaches.
Variable-Interval Schedule (VI)
-Reinforcement is given AFTER a varying amount of time that averages out at a specific time interval.

EX: A parent attending to the cries of a child. Parents will not typically attend to the child each time it cries, but will leave he or she to fuss for a period before attending.

EX: A "VI3" schedule of reinforcement might make reinforcement available after 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes and finally 1 minute. Reinforcement became available 5 times over a total interval period of 15 minutes. On average then, three minutes had to pass before reinforcement became available (2 + 5 + 3 + 4 + 1 = 15 ÷ 5 = 3).
Multiple-Exemplar Training
-Using multiple examples when training (or teaching) a child.
Temporal Extent
Behavior occurs for a period of time (e.g. duration).
Temporal Locus
Behavior occurs at certain point in time with respect to other events (e.g. latency, interresponse time)
Stimulus Generalization
The new stimulus evokes a response that is the same, or similar, to the response that occurs in the presence of the "trained" stimulus.

EX: A person has a conditioned fear response to a 20' poisonous snake. They see a harmless 2' snake in their yard. If the 2' snake elicits the same fear response as the 20' snake, this is stimulus generalization.
6 Steps of Developing a Behavior Intervention Plan
1. Build the team
2. Know the strengths and interests of the client
3. Complete the functional behavior assessment
4. Develop hypothesis statement and share FBA results with the team
5. Develop the behavior intervention plan
6. Monitor the results
Interresponse Time
The amount of time that elapses between 2 consecutive instances of a response.
4 Steps of Discrete Trial Training
1. Specific cue or instruction from the teacher (SD)
2. Opportunity for the learner to respond (Response)
3. Consequence delivered by the teacher based on the learner's response
4. Inter-trial Interval (ITI)
4 Ways a Prompt Can Be Faded
1. Most to least prompt sequence
2. Graduated guidance
3. Least to most prompt sequence
4. Time delay
8 Parts of a Behavior Intervention Plan
1. Teaching strategies
2. Setting event strategies
3. Antecedent control strategies
4. Consequence control strategies
5. Safety net strategies
6. Implementation of plan
7. Monitoring strategies
8. Generalization and Maintenance strategies
4 Types of Graphs
1. Scatter plot
2. Line
3. Bar
4. Cumulative Record
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer
A reinforcer that can be exchanged for a number of things such as credit cards, tokens, raffle tickets, etc.
5 Criterion for Describing an Environment
1. Setting
2. Other people
3. Sounds, visual stimuli, motion in the environment
4. Demands and expectations imposed
5. Biological context
Multiple Stimulus with Replacement
Multiple items are presented to the client simultaneously. Once an item has been selected, it is replaced prior to the next trial so that all items are presented in each trial.
What are Primary and Secondary Reinforcers?
A Primary reinforcer is unlearned (biological/innate). It does not require learning or teaching- such as food.

A Secondary reinforcer is a learned reinforcer such as praise.
What are the X and Y axes on a graph called?
X= Abscissa
Y= Ordinate
3 Measurable Dimensions of Behavior
1. Repeatability
2. Temporal extent
3. Temporal locus
What labels are on the x- and y-axis?
X-Axis (Horizontal): Usually describes the unit of time during which the behavior was recorded (sessions, days, weeks, etc).

Y-Axis (Vertical): Tells you the behavior that is being recorded (tantrums, disruptions per session, depressive episodes in a week, etc).