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Substance Abuse DSST
Terms in this set (39)
substances that are illegal to possess, such as marijuana and cocaine
drugs that are legal and include coffee, alcohol, and tobacco ... also include over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as aspirin, cold remedies, and antihistamines.
often used to describe addiction as well, but professionals prefer the term dependency ... it occurs when an individual uses a drug so often that going without it is physically and psychologically difficult and results in withdrawal symptoms (nausea, anxiety, muscle spasms, sweating)
commonly used to describe people's overindulgence in everything from gambling to chocolate (less specific than dependency)
the 3 models of dependency
moral model, disease model, and characterological/personality predisposition model
a person choose to abuse drugs and alcohol
a person abuses drugs and alcohol because of a biological condition
characterological/personality predisposition model
a person is inclined to develop a chemical dependency because of certain personality traits
the 3 theories of dependency
biological, psychological, sociological
Substance abuse stems from physical characteristics related to genetics, brain dysfunction, and biochemical patterns. People with such traits experiment with drugs and then crave them.
The mental and emotional status of an individual leads to substance abuse. Social learning theory emphasizes that individuals drug use behaviors from society, family, and peers.
social and environmental factors influence substance abuse. Social influence theories claim that a person's daily social relationships are the cause of substance abuse. Structural influence theories assert that substance abuse occurs because of the organization of an individual's society, peer groups, and subculture.
social trends of substance abuse
among American college students, 70% drink alcohol, 25% smoke cigarettes, 20% admit to smoking marijuana and 2% admitted to cocaine. Asians have the lowest percentage of illicit drug use, Native Americans have the highest. SA is also more common among men.
costs of drug use
a drug addict needs $100 every day to support a narcotics habit: criminal activity is frequently the source of funds for many drug abusers (burglary, shoplifting, prostitution)
stimulants, hallucinogens, opioids, cannabis, depressants, nicotine, psychotherapeutics (SHOC D-oes N-ot P-ay)
examples of stimulants
AKA "uppers" : cocaine, amphetamines, ritalin, caffeine
examples of depressants
AKA "downers" : alcohol, barbiturates, sleeping pills, inhalants
examples of hallucinogens
AKA "psychadelics" : LSD, mescaline, ecstasy, PCP (tolerance for these drugs builds up quickly, so higher amounts are constantly needed).
examples of opioids
AKA "analgesics, painkillers, narcotics" : opium, morphine, codeine, heroin, methadone
examples of cannabis
marijuana, THC, hashish
why is marijuana unique?
it is a depressant, hallucinogenic, and analgesic: chief psychoactive ingredient is delta-9-tetrahdrocannabinol (THC)
examples of nicotine
AKA "gateway drug" : cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars
examples of psychotherapeutics
AKA "antipsychotics or antidepressants" : prozac, haldol
a survival method of the human body attempting to maintain internal stability: homeostatic mechanisms regulate body temperature, blood pressure, glucose concentrations, etc.
the four regions of a neuron
1) cell body: contains the nucleus 2) dendrites: branches that receive transmitter signals 3) axon: long extension of the cell body that conducts electrical signals 4) presynaptic terminals: stores chemical messengers AKA "neurotransmitters"
the presence of one drug can affect how another drug works in the body
3 types of drug interactions
addictive interactions, antagonistic interactions, potentiative interactions
the summation of effects that occur when similar drugs are taken
one drug blocks the effect of another drug - also known as inhibitory
one drug enhances the effect of another drug - also known as synergism
blood alcohol concentration
BAC is based on :
individual's gender, weight, and alcohol consumption
BAC and behavior
0.05% : reduced inhibition, decreased alertness, impaired judgement, relaxed mood
0.10% : decreased reaction time, impaired motor skills
0.20% : significant reduction in sensory and motor skills
0.25% : staggering, severe motor skill disturbance
0.30% : conscious but in a stupor
0.40% : unconsciousness
rate of alcohol absorption factors
drinking water slows the rate of absorption
carbonated beverages increase the rate
full stomach slows vs. empty stomach speeds
body weight (*alcohol does not distribute into fatty tissues)
common liver disorders
cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis
alcohol-dependency withdrawal stages
stage 1 : tremors, restlessness, insomnia, rapid heartbeat, and heavy sweating
stage 2: stage 1 symptoms plus hallucinations and vomiting
stage 3 : delusions, disorientation and fever
stage 4: seizures that are life-threatening in some cases
AKA "central nervous system depressants" : relieve anxiety and fear, induce drowsiness and sleep.
CNS depressants that offer a safe alternative to barbiturates, the most popular and safe CNS depressants today: Valium, Ambien, Xanax.
habit forming drugs used in the early part of the 20th century used for anti-anxiety medication: caused tolerance, dependence and respiration depression.
What is the mechanism of action of Amoxapine and Maprotiline?
what is the primary neurotransmitter involved in central sensitization?
what is the first generation H1 blocker
What are the types of parenteral medications?
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