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Foundations of Reading Book Terms
Terms in this set (88)
grouping of children with similar needs for instructional purposes. Ability groups do not remain constant throughout the year, but change as the children's needs within them change.
occurs when words begin with the same constant sound, such as Peter piper picked a pair of pickled peppers.
the idea that written spellings represent spoken words.
a balanced literacy term for a book that is purposely read repeatedly and used as part of both the reading and writing workshop. It is a good idea to use certain books that the children's familiar with and cherished favorites for both reading and then to inspire children's writing.
occurs when words begin with the same vowel sound. Example: The light of the fire is a sight (repetition of the long i sound).
assessment activities which reflect the actual workplace, family community and school curriculum.
balanced literacy lesson format (whole-small-whole group approach)
begins with a 10-15 minute mini lesson that the teacher delivers to the whole class. this mini lesson is followed by a 30 minute small group (when the children break into small groups to work) lesson. It concludes with a 10 minute share during which the whole class reconvenes to share what they have done in small groups.
school state, or nationally mandated statements of the expectations for student learning and achievement in various content areas.
bics basic interpersonal communication skills (ELL term- bilingual education)
learning second language skills and becoming proficient in a second language through face to face interaction-translation through speaking, listening and viewing.
the process of hearing separate phonemes and being able to merge them together to read the word.
children need to be familiar with the front and back cover, title and half-title page, dedication page, table of contents, prologue, epilogue, and foreword and after notes. For factual books, children need to be familiar with labels, captions, glossary, index, headings and subheadings of chapters, charts and diagrams and sidebars.
an assessment form which lists targeted learning and social behaviors as indicators of achievement, knowledge or skill. They can be professionally- or teacher prepared.
a five line poem that can be read and then used as a model for writing. Generally the first line of this format is a single word, line 2 has 2 words which describes the title of line 1, line 3 is comprised of 3 words which are movement words, line 4 has 4 words which express feeling and line 5 has a single word which is a synonym for line 1.
this occurs when the reader correctly interprets the print on the page and constructs meaning from it. comprehension depends on activating prior knowledge, cultural and social background of the reader, and the reader's ability to use comprehension monitoring strategies.
concepts about print
includes: how to handle books, how to look at print, directionality of words, sequencing, locating skills, punctuation, and concepts of letters and words.
two consecutive constants that represent one new speech sound. In the word diagraph the ph which sounds like /f/ is a diagraph. Also sh, th, ch, wh.
sentences deliberately prepared by the teacher which include sufficient contextual clues for the student to decipher meaning.
using context to determine word meaning.
children read with a particular partner or buddy. It can be silent or oral
ell term- when students navigate back and forth between their native language and English.
as they self monitor their reading comprehensions, readers have to integrate various sources of information or cues to help them construct meaning from text and graphic illustrations.
"sounding out" a printed sequence of letters based on knowledge of letter sound correspondences.
two vowels in one syllable where the two sounds are heard. Ex: in the word house the /o/ and /u/ sound are heard. "ou, ae and au"
children use fingers to indicate left to right direction and return to sweep to the next line.
the need for the teacher, based on observation of individual student work, progress, test results, fluency and other reading/literacy behaviors, to provide modified instruction and alternative strategies or activities. These activities are specifically designed by the teacher to address the individual student's different needs.
recognize most high frequency words and many simple words. they use pictures to confirm its meaning. using meaning, syntax, and phonics, they can figure out most simple words. they use spelling patterns to figure out new words. they are gaining control of reading strategies. they use their own experiences and background knowledge to predict meanings. they occasionally use story language in their writing. this stage follow emergent readers.
the stage of reading in which the reader understands that print contains a consistent message. the reader can recognize some high frequency words, names, and simple words in context. pictures can be used to predict meaning. the emergent reader begins to attend to left to right directionality and features of print and may identify some initial sounds ad ending sounds in words.
to change a message into symbols. Ex: readers encode oral language into writing.
english as a second language
a way of teaching English to speakers of other languages using English as the language of instruction.
non-fiction that provides information and facts. Ex: newspapers, science, math and history text. students may be required to create brochures, guides, recipes, and procedural accounts. the reaching of reading of expository texts requires working with a particular vocabulary and concept structure that is very different from that of the narrative text. therefore time must be taken to teach the reading of expository texts and contrast it with the reading of narrative texts.
an ell term for the language any child acquires in the first few years of life. it is through this acquired language that the child acquires phonological and phonemic awareness.
identifies most words automatically. can read chapter books with good comprehension. consistently monitor, cross-check, and self correct reading. they can provide experience and prior knowledge to the reading. Can make connections.
a test or an observation of a performance task which is done under controlled and regulated conditions.
the reading of instructions, recipes, coupons, classified ads, notices, signs, and other documents we have to read and correctly interpret in school and in society.
grade equivalent/grade score
a score transformed from a raw score on a standardized test into the equivalent score earned by an average student in the norming group.
express relationships among various ideas in visual form including: sequence, timelines, character traits, fact and opinion, main idea and details, differences and likeness. Helpful for visual learners.
one of the key modes of instruction in the balanced literacy approach. during guided reading, the teacher "guides" the child through silent reading of a text by giving them prompts, target questions, and even helping the reading section or excerpt of the text, the child stops to talk with the teacher about the text. an interactive discussion between the child and the student. the mode of reading instruction is generally used when children need extra support in constructing meaning because the text is complex or because their independent reading capacities are limited.
frequently used words. these words appear many more times than do other words in ordinary reading material. examples of such words include as, in, of and the. these words are also sometimes called service words. these words are also part of sight word vocabulary. a classic best known high frequency word list is generated by dolch.
a set period of time within the daily literacy block when children read books with 95-100% accuracy on their own. this reading of books by themselves which they can understand without teacher support promotes lifelong literacy and the love of learning, which enhances reading mileage, builds fluency, and helps children orchestrate integrated cue strategies.
observations of children made under informal conditions; these can include kid watching, checklists, and individual child/teacher conversations.
informal reading inventory (IRI)
a series of reading excerpts that can be used to determine a child's reading strengths and weaknesses in comprehension and decoding. many published reading series have IRI to go with their series.
the positioning of print on the page so that each line ends at the same margin.
term used within the balanced literacy approach for the teacher's deliberate, detailed, and recorded observations of individual student and class literacy behaviors. often done during small group work. the teacher then reconfigures the lessons on experiences to meet students' individual and group needs.
learning is tactile; as contrasted with an activity where the learner sits still or attempts to sit still in one place. cutting and moving syllable or word strips or using sandpaper letters are kinesthetic activities.
children giving dictation to the teacher who writes their words on a chart or their drawings. this shows children that words can be written down.
daily records of what students have learned.
sets of headphones attached to a single tape player. children can go to centers where they listen to audiotapes of books while reading the print book. these posts are in many libraries as well.
a group discussion involving 4 to 6 children who have read the same work of literature (narrative or expository text). They talk about key parts of the work, relate it to their own experience, listen to the responses of others, and discuss how parts of the text relate to the whole.
moving around or switching sounds within a word or words within a phrase or sentence.
words whose meanings children understand and can use.
an oral reading mistake by a child which differs from the actual printed text.
the teacher keeps a detailed recording of the errors or inaccurate attempts of a child reader during a reading assessment. these are recorded with a running record. this helps the teacher see whether the cues- semantic or graphophonemic- the child is using is accurate.
various strategies that children use to monitor their readings. a sample are maintaining fluency by bringing prior knowledge to the story to make predictions, using these predictions to do further checking, searching and self correcting as the story progresses, and using problem-solving, word study skills to make links from known words to unknown words.
smallest units of meaning in words. there are two types f morphemes: free (can stand alone such as love), which is attached to a bound morpheme which must be attached to another morpheme to carry meaning such as "-ed" in loved.
one of the two basic text structures. the narrative text tells or communicates a story. narrative texts are novels, short stories and plays. some poems are narratives as well. the narrative text needs to be taught differently than the expository text because of the structure.
one to one matching
matching one spoken word to a written word.
onset rime and blending-onset
everything before the vowel and rime (the vowel and everything after it) for example the word sleep can be broken into sl/eep. word families are built using rimes. the eep word family would include jeep, sheep, keep and weep.
a method of representing spoken language through letters and diacritics.
if a child scores at the 56th percentile for his/her grade level, his or her score is equal to above that 56 percentile of the students who took that standardized test and 46% below the children on whose scores that test was normed.
having children do a task that demonstrates their knowledge, skills and competency. Having children author their own alphabet book on a particular topic would be a performance assessment for knowledge of the alphabet.
the smallest unit of sound that makes a difference in meaning. rope is r-o-p (3) changing one phoneme from r to n changes it to nope n-o-p.
the understanding that words are composed of sounds. phonemic awareness is a specific type of phonological awareness dealing with only phonemes in a spoken word.
the study of relationships between phonemes (speech sounds) graphemes (letters) that represent the phonemes. It is also decoding or the sounding out of unknown words that are written.
the ability to recognize the sounds of spoken language and how they can be blended together, segmented, and switched/manipulated to form new combinations or words.
readers use their knowledge of letter/sound and sound/letter relationships to predict and confirm reading.
the study of speech structure in language that includes both the patterns of basic speech units (phonemes) and tactic rules of pronunciation.
collections of a child's work over time. they include a cover letter, reflections from the child and teacher, and other supportive documents that include standards, performance task examples, prompts and sometimes peer comments.
primary language (ELL term)
the language an individual is the most fluent and at ease with. this is usually but not always the childs first language.
when the teacher intervenes in the child's independent reading to help the child pronounce or comprehend a specific word or prompt. On a reading record the teacher notes the prompt. when the teacher wants to match a child with a particular book or determine the stage of reading/level, the teacher does not use prompts.
question generating strategy for an expository text
first the child previews the text by reading titles, subheads, looking at the pictures or illustrations and reading the first paragraph. next the child asks a "think" question which he or she records. then the child reads to find information that might answer the "think" question. the child may write down the information found or think about another question that is answered by what the child is reading. the child continues to read using this strategy.
reading for information
reading with the purpose of extracting facts and expert opinion from the text. children should be introduced to the following information reading resources: web resources that are age and grade appropriate, the concept of the table of contents, chapter headings, glossaries, pictures, maps, charts, diagrams, and text structures in an information text. they should be taught to use notes, graphs, organizers, and mind maps to share information extracted from a text.
to change information from one code into another, as recoding writing into oral speech.
the group of words which children are able to correctly pronounce, read orally, and understand on sight.
record of reading behavior
(running record) an objective observation during which the teacher records, using a standard set of symbols as the child reads a book selected by a teacher.
to analyze, discuss, and react to one's learning on any grade or age level.
retelling can be oral or written. children are expected and encouraged to tell as much of the story as they can remember. retelling is far more extensive than just summarizing. children should include the beginning, middle and end plot lines and should be able to tell about the book's characters.
a set of guidelines or acceptable responses for the completion of any task. usually a rubric ranges from 0 to 4 with 4 being the most detailed response and 0 indicating a response to the task which lacked detail or was in other ways insufficient.
refers to the teacher support necessary for the child to accomplish a task or to achieve a goal which the child can not accomplish on his/her own. Vygotsky termed this window of opportunity the "zone of proximal development". Ultimately as the child becomes more proficient or capable, the scaffold is withdrawn. the goal of scaffolding is to help the child perform the reading task independently and internalize the behavior. during SHARED READING, the task is scaffolded by the teacher's reading to the children aloud. as the teacher reads, the teacher scaffolds the initial decoding and helps with the meaning making/construction.
children pause to search in the picture, print, or their memory for known information. this can happen as the child tackles an unknown word or after an error.
second language (ELL Term)
a language acquired or learned simultaneously with or after a child's acquisition of a first language.
the process of hearing a spoken word and identifying its separate phonemes or syllables.
children begin to correct some of their own reading errors generally this behavior is accompanied by the re-reading of the previous phrase or sentence.
children use their prior knowledge, sense of the story, and pictures to support their predicting and confirming the meaning of the text.
a visual graphic organizer that the teacher can use to introduce a reading on a specific topic. it is visually represents many other words associated with a target word. the web can help activate the children's prior knowledge and extend to clarify it. it can also serve to check new learning after guided or independent reading.
using images, color or layout to help readers whose learning style is spatial.
how far a child's grade on a standardized test is from the average score (mean) on the test in terms of the standard deviation. if a child scores 70 on a standardized test and the standard deviation is 5 and the average (mean) score is 65, the child is one standard deviation above average.
a test given under specified conditions allowing comparisons to be made. a set of norms or average scores on this test will be used for comparisons.
stop and think strategy
a balanced literacy strategy for constructing meaning. as the text is being read, the child asks himself or herself, does this make sense to me? if it does not make sense to me, i should then try to reread it or go ahead. i can also look up the words that I don't know or ask for help. generally the teacher models this strategy with the whole class as a mini lesson and then it is posted prominently in the classroom for continued reference by the children.
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