chapter 5 raven and berg

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Terms in this set (43)
ecotoneThe transition from one type of habitat or ecosystem to another, such as the transition from a forest to a grassland.edge effectthe condition in which, at ecosystem boundaries, there is greater species diversity and biological density than there is in the heart of ecological communities.interspecies competitionhappens when two or more species need the same resources. i.e. two differnet species competing for the same food...resulting in less of it for each speciesepiphitesplants that grow and live of over plants eg. strangler figseukaryoticA cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes can be unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).evolution,change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organismsfundamental nichethe entire range of conditions an organism can toleratehabitatthe type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occursKeystone speciesa species whose impact on its community or ecosystem are much larger and more influential than would be expected from mere abundance. they also effect biodiversity.lichensrepresent symbiotic relationships between a fungus and a photosynthetic partnerlimiting factorany biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.moneraprokaryotic bacteria and blue-green algae and various primitive pathogensmutualismthe relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependentinterdependentdependent on one another; mutually dependentmycorrhizaesymbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant rootsnatural selectionprocess by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittestparasitismthe relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)pioneer speciesfirst species to populate an area during primary successionplantaea classification kingdom made up of eukaryotic, multicellular organisms that have cell walls made mostly of cellulose, that have pigments that absorb light, and that supply energy and oxygen to themselves and to other life-forms through photosynthesispopulationa group of organisms of the same species populating a given areapredationan interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organismprimary succesionsuccesion that occurs on land where no soil existsprokaryoticdescribes a cell that does not have a nucleus or anyother membrane-covered organelles; also called bacteria. no nucleusprotistaeukaryotic one-celled living organisms distinct from multicellular plants and animals: protozoa, slime molds, and eukaryotic algaerealized nichethe part of its fundamental niche that a species actually occupies, the range of resources and conditions a species actually uses or can tolerate at optimal efficiency; smaller than fundamental nicheresourceany necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or spaceresource partitioningin a biological community various populations sharing environmental resources through specialization thereby reducing direct competitionsecondary successionSuccession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soilspeciesgroup of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspringspecies richnessthe number of different species in a communitysuccession(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is establishedsymbiosisthe living together in mutually helpful association of two dissimilar organismswarning colorizationwarn preditors using color schemes