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Terms in this set (106)
Atrial Septal Defect
Abnormal opening between the atria. Has three types Ostium Primum, ostium secundum, sinus venous defect. Results in increased pulmonary blood flow.
Ventricular Septal Defect
Abnormal opening between the right and left ventricles. Results in increased pulmonary blood flow.
Atrioventricular Canal Defect
incomplete fusion of the endocardial cushion. Consists of a low ASD and a high VSD and clefts of the mitral and tricuspid valves. Results in increased pulmonary blood flow.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close within the first few weeks of life. Causes a left to right shunt resulting in increased pulmonary blood flow.
Coarctation of the aorta
Localized narrowing near the insertion of the ductus arteriosus. Results in an obstructive defect.
Narrowing or stricture of the aortic valve. Prominent consequence is hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall. Resulting in an obstructive defect.
Narrowing at the entrance to the pulmonary artery. Causes right ventricular hypertrophy resulting in an obstructive defect
Tetralogy of Fallot
Includes Four Defects
4.Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
Results in decreased pulmonary blood flow.
the tricuspid Valve fails to develop. Results in decreased pulmonary blood flow.
Transposition of the Great (Arteries/ Vessels)
The pulmonary artery leaves the left ventricle and the aorta exits from the right ventricle with no communication between the systemic and pulmonary circulations. Results in a mixed defect.
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection
Rare defect characterized by failure of the pulmonary veins to join the left atrium. Resulting in a mixed defect.
Failure of normal septation and division of the embryonic bulbar which results in a single vessel that overrides both ventricles. Results in a mixed defect.
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
Underdevelopment of the left side of the heart, resulting in a hypoplastic left ventricle and aortic atresia. Resulting in a mixed Defect.
Purpose of the Urinary System
chief function is regulation of fluid volume and composition of body fluids and excretion of waste material
the functional unit of the kidney
Up until what age is kidney function immature?
When is Gender genetically determined?
at time of fertilization
How do genitals of preterm females appear?
when the foreskin is tight at birth
when testicle fail to drop into the scrotum
when urethra terminates on dorsal or ventral aspect of the penis
T/F Infants are more susceptible to fluid volume excess and dehydration
Diagnostic Tests for kidney and urinary tract?
-Renal/ bladder ultrasonography
-CT scan of kidneys
What two procedures assess bladder capacity and function?
Cystometrogram and voiding pressure study
UTIs are more common in what gender
Females because of the shorter urethra
What is the major causative bacteria of UTIs?
S/S of infants with UTI
-Persistent diaper rash.
S/S of older children
-Pain during micturition.
-Onset of bedwetting.
common anti-infectives used for UTIs
-Sulfonamide (trimethoprim and sulfasoxazole in combination).
Repeated UTIs can result in?
Renal scarring, decreased renal function and can contribute to hypertension as an adult.
-obstruction of normal flow of urine.
-Congenital or acquired.
-Partial or complete.
-One or both kidneys affected.
a condition in which large, fluid-filled cysts form in place of healthy kidney tissue in the fetus
distention of the renal pelvis because of an obstruction. Can eventually damage renal nephrons.
Tx for obstructive Uropathy
-Surgery may cause apprehension in
-Emotional support for parents.
-Teach parents to prevent infection
What type of growth and development impact does surgery of the urinary or genital tract have on a preschooler?
Treatment perceived as punishment, separation anxiety during hospitalization, body image disturbance
a number of different types of kidney conditions that is distinguished by the presence of marked amounts of protein in the urine, edema, and hypoalbuminemia.
S/S of nephrotic Syndrome
-Edema: characteristic symptom.
-Albumin & RBCs in urine.
-Decreased albumin in RBCs
How are weights measured?
On the same scale at the same time each day.
-1-3 weeks after strep infection.
-Most common boys
-Glomerulus become inflamed/blocked.
-Observe for hypertensive changes.
S/S of Acute Glomeulonephritis
-Periorbital edema upon awakening.
-Smoky brown or bloody urine.
-Decreased urine output, specific gravity w/albumin, RBCs and WBCs.
-Elevated BUN, serum creatinine & sed rate.
-Reduced serum complement.
Describe the appearance of the urine from a child with acute glomerulonephritis?
Smoky brown or bloody urine
Wilm's tumor (Nephroblastoma)
-an embryonal adenosarcoma.
-One of the most common malignancies of early life.
-Associated with certain congenital anomalies particularly of the genitourinary tract.
-Two-thirds of growths are discovered before 3 years of age.
What must you NOT do for a patient with Wilm's Tumor (nephroblastoma)?
Do not palpate the abdomen
The sign inside the crib of a child with Wilms tumor should state what?
"Do Not Palpate Abdomen"
Acute Renal Failure
When kidneys suddenly are unable to regulate the volume and composition of urine appropriately
Conditions that cause acute Renal Failure
-Poor renal perfusion.
-Urinary tract obstructions.
-Acute renal injury.
T/F is acute renal failure usually reversible?
how is acute renal failure treated?
-Treating the underlying cause
-Foley to rule out urinary retention
What complications should a nurse be alert to with acute renal failure?
-Changes in behavior.
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)
Kidneys are no longer able to maintain the normal chemical structure of body fluids.
What is the most important thing to remember when accessing the graft of a child with CRF who is undergoing dialysis?
You must maintain strict asepsis
When does the swallowing reflex occur?
What makes newborns more prone to jaundice?
when the total output exceeds the total intake
What are the three types of dehydration?
What are the signs of dehydration?
Percentage of weight loss, increased pulse, irritability and lethargy, dry mucous membranes, absence of tears, sunken eyes or fontanel and delayed capillary refill
Caused by abnormal intestinal water and electrolyte transport.
Sudden increase in stools from usual pattern with a liquid consistency and a green color containing mucus or blood.
What are the classifications of diarrhea?
Intractable diarrhea occurs in first few months of life and lasts longer than 2 weeks.
What is the most common cause of gastroenteritis?
an alteration in the frequency, consistency, or ease of passing stool
What is the difference between obstipation and encopresis?
Obstipation is when there are long periods between stools whereas encopresis is the lack of stools.
Treatment for constipation
eat more fiber, protein and carbs
-Absence of ganglionic innervation of bowel
-Lack of normal peristalsis
-More common in boys
S/S of Hirschsprung's disease
-Failure to pass meconium
-Failure to thrive
Tx for Hirschsprung's disease
Avoid tap water enemas
What is the earliest sign of Hirschsprung's disease?
Failure to pass meconium stools.
Is common and is usually self-limiting
Positioning for a child vomiting
Position the child on their side or semi-reclining to prevent aspiration
Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)
the transfer of gastric contents into the esophagus
A treatment for GER where muscle is wrapped around the outside of opening to reinforce the esophageal sphincter
Which position is recommended for a child with GER?
The upright prone position.
When teaching an adolescent about GER, how do they need to adapt their diets?
They need to avoid caffeine, chocolate and spicy foods because they may aggravate their symptoms.
Inflammation of the appendix
S/S of appendicitis
What tests may show an enlarged appendix?
Ultrasound or CT
A small blind pouch near the ileocecal valve
The most common congenital malformation of the GI tract
Symptoms for Meckel's diverticulum usually appear at what age?
Before 2 years old
Is a chronic inflammation that involves all layers of the bowel wall
Meds to control inflammation
What type of diet should be encouraged for the child with Crohn's disease
A well balanced, high-protein, high-calorie diet.
Peptic Ulcer Disease
A chronic condition
How are peptic ulcers described?
Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula
The tissues of the gastrointestinal tract fail to separate properly from the respiratory tract in utero
T/F, Esophageal Atresia is a surgical emergency?
What does VATER and VACTERL stand for?
VATER: vertebral, anorectal, tracheoesophageal and renal.
VACTERL: vertebral, anorectal, cardiovascular, tracheoesophageal, renal and limb abnormalities that may be present with children who have EA/TEF.
You expect a newborn has EA/TEF. What is the first thing you should do?
The first thing you should do is stop oral feedings, then notify the provider immediately.
Types of Hernia
May be congenital or acquired
A reducible hernia can be put back into place
An incarcerated hernia cannot be reduced
A strangulated hernia has a diminished blood supply
What is the surgery called to repair a hernia?
Narrowing of the lower end of the stomach
What is pyloromyotomy?
It is a surgical procedure in which the pyloric muscle is incised to enlarge the opening to allow food to pass.
A slipping of one part of the intestine into another portion of the intestine
The intestinal obstruction can strangulate and burst
More common in boys, usually ages 3 months to 3 years of age
S/S of Intussusception
Sudden, severe abdominal pain
Loud cry, straining efforts, kicks & draws legs in
Diminished flatus & BMs
Currant jelly stools
T/F, intussusception is a medical emergency?
Children with Intussusception may have bowel movements containing blood and mucus and no feces. What are these called?
Currant- jelly stools
A child diagnosed with celiac disease must restrict foods containing what?
Body Surface Area
The percentage/ ratio of skin surface area to the weight. Is the reason why the infants have greater amount than adults do.
What fluid compartment constitutes more than half of the Total Body Weight(TBW) at birth?
What three categories are fluid loss divided into?
What are the degrees of dehydration?
Most common cause of diarrhea in children and a significant nosocomial infection.
Caused by meconium that has reduced water and is usually evacuated after digital examination.
-the initial manifestation of Cystic Fibrosis
-The luminal obstruction of the distal small intestines by abnormal meconium
Hirschsprung Disease (HD)
A congenital anomaly that results in mechanical obstruction from inadequate motility of part of the intestines. Causes severe constipation.
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A&P II Medical terms
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