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Federal Election Campiagn Act

Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act

Amends the FECA by banning soft money contributions, increasing the amount of money that people may donate to candidates, also imposed restrictions on political ads close to election.

Individual Contributions

Maximum allowable contribution is 1000 per election per candidate, primary and general elections considered separate.


(political action committee) Federally mandated, fundraising commitees that represent interest groups in the political process. Basically the fundraising arm of interest groups.

Political Party contributions

May provide 15-17% of their candidates war chests.

Member to candidate contributions

In congress or state legislatures, incumbants may contribute money to the party.

Public Funds

Donations from general tax revenues.

Independent Expenditures

money spent by individuals or groups, not candidates, in order to elect or defeat a candidate for office

Buckley Vs Valeo

Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional for Congress to limit the amount of money an individual may spend supporting a candidate if the expenditures are made independent of the campaign.

Hard Money

Legally specified and limited contributions that are clearly regulated by the FECA. Raised under FECA guidlines.

Express ads

Use words vote for or against...Ads paid for with hard money which expressly advocate election or defeat of a candidate.

Issue Advocacy

Paid for with soft money, Unlimited and undisclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like "vote for" or "vote against," although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates.

Electioneering Communications

Any broadcats, cable, or satillite communication which refers to a candiatae for federal office.

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