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240 terms

MGMT 5X07 S

STUDY
PLAY
is best known for his role in Hawthrone Studies
Elton May
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth are important to management b/c
they used motion studies to eliminate unnecessary motions form the work process
Frederick Taylor is famous for
creating the principles of scientific management
Mary Parker Follett believed managers typically deal w/conflict in one of three ways
domination
compromise
integration
is responsible for the fact that most products are manufactured using standardized, interchangeable parts
Eli Whitney
Hawthrone Studies showed how _____ can influence work group performance, for better or worse
group cohesiveness
The goal of scientific management is to
find the one best way to perform each task
is best know for developing the 5 functions of managers & the 14 principles of management
Henri Fayol
a bureaucracy
is the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience
The Gantt chart
is a chart that shows when & where tasks need to be completed so that a job can be completed in a timely fashion
The manager of a company that produces a soy-based sausage wants to conduct a competitive analysis. During this competitive analysis, he should look at
all of these
(chapter 3 quiz)
An emphasis on _____ is likely to decrease opportunistic behavior but will never completely eliminate it
relationship behavior
is a tactic in which an advocacy group actively tries to convince consumers not to purchase a company's product or service
Product boycott
Which of the following is a characteristic of successful organizational culture
All of these
(chapter 3 quiz)
Which of the following statements about corporate culture is true
Corporate cultures are very difficult to change
For a fast-food restaurant chain that is famous for its small, square hamburgers, Which of the following would be a component of its sociocultural environment
the fact most consumers prefer eating out rather than at home
Which of the following is a component of a book publisher's general environment & will indirectly influence how it does business
a trend toward less leisure time
refers to the events and trends inside an organization that affect management, employees, and the organizational culture
internal environment
Tourism was not the only travel-associated industry that has been visibly hurt by what happened on 9/11. People decided to vacation at home and sales of luggage and similar travel gear decreased significantly. Sales of home swimming pools increased. The decision to stay at home reflects a change in attitudes toward the perceived safety of long-distance traveling. This is an example of a change in the
sociocultural
is used to refer to a company's practice of identifying and addressing customer trends and problems after they occur
reactive customer monitoring
the first step managers use to make sense of their changing environments
environmental scanning
fear of a lawsuit prevents many employers from giving totally honest recommendations to former employees. This reflects a change in the _____ component of the general environment
political/legal
When Susan started work at Henderson Textile Co., she was amazed at its employees who would take 30 minute restroom breaks, leave for the day at 2 pm, and generally belittle the company's management. Such employees' actions most likely developed over time as a result of a faulty
organizational culture
in terms of external organizational environments, the ____ environment affects all organizations while the _____ environment is unique to each company.
general; specific
When Samsonite purchased American Tourister, one of the first things the new management did was to eliminate the American Tourister Gorilla mascot (which had appeared in all American Tourister ads for years and which represented the quality construction of American Tourister luggage). The gorilla had been a symbol of quality and commitment for American Tourister employees. The executive order to remove the gorilla posters from the walls of offices and factories was one of the means Samsonite used to change the organizational culture at American Tourister. The gorilla posters were an example of
visible artifacts
Kodak makes digital cameras and paper for prints. Kodak would view the growing popularity of digital cameras as a _______ in its external environment if it considered how digital cameras affect sales of cameras that use film. On the other hand, Kodak would view the growing popularity of digital cameras as an ______ in its external environment if it considered the amount of Kodak processing paper used in printing pictures made by digital cameras
threat; opportunity
which of the following companies is most likely operating in a dynamic environment
a video game manufacturer
more premature babies than ever before are surviving due to improvements in medical knowledge and care. This improved survival rate can be attributed to the ____ component of hospitals
technological
suppose that a Mexican car manufacturer wants to export cars to Guatemala. Knowing that the distribution of income w/in Guatemala is highly unequal and that about 75% of the population is below the poverty line would be an ______ component in the manufacturer's general environment
economic
which of the following is a component of the specific environment that would directly influence a restaurant's day-to-day operation
its regular customers
what is social responsibility
a business' obligation to pursue policies, make decisions, and take actions that benefit society
According to the SMART guidelines, goals should be
measurable
a manufacturer of suntan lotion could set a ____ goal to increase revenues by 8% over the next 5 years and a ____ goal to increase sales next June in the Miami Beach area by 3%
distal; proximal
the _____ is a decision making method in which a panel of experts responds to questions and to each other until an agreement is reached on how a specific issue should be handled
Delphi technique
top management is responsible for developing long-term ___ that make clear how the company will serve customers and position itself against competitiors in the next 2-5 years
strategic plans
approach to decision making is a method in which an individual or subgroup is assigned the role of critic
devil's advocate
is a systematic process of defining problems, evaluating alternatives, and choosing optimal solutions
rational decision making
are standing plans that indicate the specific steps that should be taken in response to a particular event
procedures
a ____ should be brief, enduring, inspirational, clear, and consistent with widely shared company beliefs and values
vision statement
which of the following is a commonly used method for increasing goal commitment
encouraging worker participation in goal setting
groupthink occurs in
highly cohesive groups where there is a great deal of pressure to agree with each other
new employees were instructed never to wear loose fitting clothes when working around the canning machine. What kind of a standing plan is described in this example
rules and regulations
which of the following is not a step in the management by objectives (MBO) process
jointly develop operational plans
____ occurs when managers choose an alternative that is good enough, rather than the best possible alternative
satisficing
____ plans are plans that specify how a company will use resources, budgets, and people to accomplish specific goals w/in its mission
tactical
in the 1960s, Coca-Cola executives in Atlanta learned there was a bottler in the Colombian jungle that was bottling pirated Coke in dumped bottles. Coke decided in the ____ stage of the rational decision making process that it had to either bring some sort of legal action against the unauthorized bottler, ignore it, or buy it.
generation of alternative courses of action
____ plans direct the behavior, efforts, and priorities of operative employees for periods ranging from one 1 to 6 months
operational
is the type of operational plan that saves managers time because it is created once and then used repeatedly to handle frequently recurring events
standing plan
exists when there is a gap between a desired state (what managers want) and an existing state (the situation that the managers are facing).
problem
according to the text, which of the following is a pitfall of planning
a false sense of certainty based on faulty assumptions
which of the following steps in the decision making process can be done better by groups than by individuals
defining the problem and generating alternatives
model holds that the only social responsibility that businesses have is to maximize profit
shareholder
which of the following statements about social responsibility is true
economic and legal responsibilities play a larger role in a company's social responsibility than do ethical and discretionary responsibilities
Mark Graf, a security specialist at the Rocky Flats nuclear facility outside Denver, became alarmed about the temporary removal of 450 kilograms of plutonium oxide from a vault-like room to a "soft room" protected by drywall that you could punch a hole through. Graf eventually had to take his concerns to the media before the plutonium was stored again in a safe location. Graf's actions can be described as
whistleblower
which of the following statements about social responsibility and economic performance is true
social responsibility can sometime create significant costs for a company
____ stakeholders are any groups that can influence or be influenced by the company and can affect public perception about its socially responsible behavior
secondary
Shell's efforts to sink an abandoned offshore oil-storage buoy, were derailed by Greenpeace in Germany, which mounted a well-orchestrated public relations blitz that caused Shell's gasoline sales to plunge by 50% at some German stations. This is an example of how _____ stakeholders can influence organizational strategy
secondary
historically, ____ responsibility means making a profit by producing a product valued by society. It has been the most basic social responsibility of a business
economic
____ stakeholders are groups, such as shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, governments, and local communities, on which the organization depends for long-term survival
primary
various persons or groups with a legitimate interest in a company's actions are called
stakeholders
Specialized Bicycle Components, Inc. introduced the first major production mountain bike in 1980. 2/3 of its profits from the sale of mountain bikes. It is recognized worldwide for its ability to design and produce superior mountain bikes. This ability is its
distinctive competence
An ____ is a resource that is impossible or extremely costly or difficult for other firms to duplicate
imperfectly imitable
an organization is experiencing ____ when there is a discrepancy between upper management's intended strategy and the strategy actually implemented by the lower levels of management
strategic dissonance
____ also called a SWOT analysis for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, is an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses in an organization's internal environment and the opportunities and threats in its external environment
situational analysis
Top-Flight manufactures Strata golf calls and prices these balls at about three times what ordinary golf balls cost. The Strata ball sells exceptionally well because customers perceive its patented three-layer construction to improve handling and increase distance. The patent on these golf balls gives Top-Flite a
sustainable competitive advantage
in any organization, the ___ are the less visible, internal decision making routines, problem solving processes, and organizational cultures that determine how efficiently inputs can be turned into outputs
core capabilities
when Clorox Corp., a manufacturer of bleach and bleach-based cleaning products, acquired Kingsford Charcoal and Prime Choice brand steak sauce; it was an example of
unrelated diversification
Specialized Bicycle Components, Inc., introduced the first major production mountain bike in 1980. 2/3 of its profits come from the sale of mountain bikes. Specialized bikes have a large share of a fast-growing market. According to the BCG matrix, specialized mountain bikes would be classified as
stars
an organization is experiencing ____ when it is reluctant to change strategies or competitive practices that have been successful in the past
competitive inertia
according to Michael Porter, 5 industry forces determine an industry's overall attractiveness and potential for long-term profitability. Which of the following is one of those forces Porter identified
bargaining power of suppliers
in the typical S-curve pattern of innovation, small amounts of effort will result in significant increases in performance
at the midpoint of the cycle
patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage are called
innovation streams
approach to innovation assumes that innovation is occurring w/in a highly uncertain environment and that the key to fast product innovation is to use intuition, flexible options, and hand-on experience to reduce uncertainty and accelerate learning and understanding
experiential
are workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged
creative work environment
organizational ____ is the successful implementation of creative ideas in organizations
innovation
refers to the production of novel and useful ideas
creativity
during the ___ phase of a technology cycle, companies innovate by lowering the cost and improving the functioning and performance of the dominant design
incremental change
the development of the DVD player was a source of ____ to companies in the movie industry just as VHS tapes had once been
technological discontinuity
is the individual who is formally in charge of guiding a change effort
change agent
a technology ____ begins with the birth of a new technology and ends with that technology reaches its limits and dies as it is replaced by a newer, substantially better technology
cycle
the goals of the compression approach to innovation are
speed, lower costs, and incremental change of dominant design
which of the following methods for managing resistance to change should only be used as a last resort or under crisis conditions
coercion
when resistance to change is based on insufficient, incorrect, or misleading information, managers should use ___ as an approach to manage resistance
education and communication
the 3 steps in the basic process of managing organizational change outlined by Kurt Lewin are
unfreezing
change intervention
refreezing
which of the following is an organizational impediment to creativity in a work environment
all of these
(chapter 7 quiz)
change focuses primarily on changing company procedures, management philosophy, or employee behavior
activity-oriented
according to John Kotter, which of the following actions will adversely influence refreezing efforts
declaring victory too soon
the typical S-curve pattern of innovation, increased effort (i.e., money, research and development) brings only small improvements in technological performance
at both the beginning and end of the cycle
according to Kurt Lewin, _____ lead to differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time, while ____ supports the status quo, or the existing state of conditions in an organization
change forces; resistance forces
which of the following is one of the sources of resistance to change
self-interest
According to _____, people will be motivated when they perceive they are being treated fairly
equity theory
In a(n) _____ reinforcement schedule, consequences are delivered following a specific number of behaviors
fixed ratio
Users of credit and debt cards that earn the owners money or rewards towards future purchases, is an example of
positive reinforcement
how do employees try to restore equity when they perceive that they have been treated unfairly?
by doing any of these
(Chapter 13)
Marketers often appeal to consumers' needs as defined by Maslow's hierarchy. A lock manufacturer, shows how much protection its locks provide and a cleaning company developed several types of wipes to eliminate concerns about infectious germs. Both marketers are appealing to which need as defined by Maslow?
safety
for the goal-setting theory to work, goals must
do all of these
(Chapter 13)
states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and they are often attractive rewards
expectancy theory
the two basic kinds of inequity are
underreward and overreward
which of the following is an example of an intrinsic reward
a sense of achievement
managers can motivate employees to increase their efforts by
asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs
which of the following is an example of extrinsic reward
salary increase
according to some industrial psychologists, _____ is a function of motivation times ability times situational constraints
job performance
Driving in heavy traffic makes Hal very anxious and sometimes angry. He leaves home earlier than usual one morning and doesn't run into heavy traffic. He leaves home earlier again the next morning, and again he avoids heavy traffic. His behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic. What kind of reinforcement has occurred in this example?
negative reinforcement
France has 14 million smokers. More importantly, smokers in France are closely associated with the French culture. To reduce the number of smokers in the nation, the French government has increased the costs of cigarettes to a price twenty times greater than that charged in any other nation in the European Union. In terms of reinforcement theory, the French government is trying to use _____ to get people to quit smoking by making cigarettes less affordable and by reducing the discretionary income (or possibly the disposable income) of people who continue smoking.
punishment
According to the expectancy theory, _____ affect the conscious choices that people make about their motivation.
valence, expectancy, and instrumentality
reinforcement theory says behavior is a function of
its consequences
is the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated
distributive justice
according to the model of need satisfaction, an unsatisfied need produces
tension
in equity theory, _____ are others with whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been treated fairly
referents
a glass of water and shelter from a snowstorm would be examples of _____, and a gold necklace and tickets to see professional wrestling would not be
low-order needs
W.L. Gore is the company that created Gore-Tex among many other innovative products. W.L. Gore employees (known as associates) don't have titles or bosses in the traditional sense. Instead, associates make commitments to work on projects that they believe are most worthy of their time. At W.L. Gore, few leaders are appointed; leaders simply emerge as needed by the other employees or the project itself. The Gore company more than likely adheres to the _____ theory of leadership.
contingency
The founder and CEO of a medical products distributor, establishes ambitious goals for his employees and is confident that they will be able to achieve these goals. In terms of the path-goal theory, this founder and CEO is exhibiting a(n) _____ type of leadership.
achievement-oriented
which of the following traits refers to the tendency of leaders to remain even tempered and consistent in their outlook and the way they treat others even when things go wrong?
emotional stability
which of the following is a major concern of leaders (as opposed to managers)?
inspiring and motivating others
which of the following is the best leadership style for all situations?
none of these
(Chapter 14)
In many organizations, sales managers develop company-wide sales forecasts by asking members of the sales force to decide how much growth they anticipate in their individual sales territories. Sales managers then take the input from the individual salespeople and create the company-wide sales forecasts based on this information. In the normative decision model, this would be an example of a(n) _____ decision-making style.
consultative
according to the path-goal theory of leadership, _____ involves consulting employees for their suggestions and input before making decisions.
participative leadership
in terms of leadership behavior, the term _____ refers to the extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, supportive, and shows concern for employees.
consideration
People with Machiavellian personalities believe that virtually any type of behavior is acceptable if it helps satisfy needs or accomplish goals. Add that skill to someone with the ability to create strong bonds with followers and you have described a leader who is a(n)
unethical charismatic leader
relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior, form the basis for the ____ of leadership
trait theory
To save a company from bankruptcy, its CEO told its employees that he would eliminate 53% of the company's mechanics and reduce the compensation of the remaining mechanics by 26%. In terms of the normative decision theory, the CEO _____
made autocratic decisions
In Fiedler's contingency theory, the term ____ refers to the degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members.
situational favorableness
is based on an exchange process, in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance.
transactional leadership
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, what type of leadership is being practiced that involves letting employees know precisely what is expected of them, giving them specific guidelines for performing tasks, scheduling work, setting standards of performance, and making sure that people follow standard rules and regulations.
directive leadership
research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily on ____, consideration impacts primarily on ____
job performance; job satisfaction
the two types of visionary leadership are
charismatic leadership
transformational leadership
leaders who possess the trait of ____ are more decisive and assertive and more likely to gain others' confidence.
self-confidence
transformational leaders
are accurately described by all of these
(Chapter 14)
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, what leadership style involves being friendly and approachable to employees, showing concern for them and their welfare, treating them as equals, and creating a friendly climate.
supportive leadership
College football coaching requires that coaches design every facet of practices, set goals for their players, determine schedules, and even direct all of the plays during the games. College football coaching uses ____ type of managing.
initiating structure
is the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations while ignoring, screening out, or not accepting inconsistent.
selective perceptions
is feedback that is intended to be helpful, corrective, and/or encouraging and is aimed at correcting performance deficiencies and motivating employees.
constructive feedback
In the perceptual process, _____ is the process of noticing or becoming aware of particular stimuli.
attention
In the perceptual process, ____ is the process of remembering interpreted information.
retention
When the CEO of a large corporation explained to their unionized employees why the company had to reduce healthcare coverage for its employees, he was engaging in _____ communications.
downward
the two primary types of grapevine communications networks are
cluster and gossip
is the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes).
a self-serving bias
is feedback that is disapproving w/out any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient.
destructive feedback
In the perceptual process, ____ is the process of attaching meaning to new knowledge.
interpretation
is communication with someone about non-job-related issues that may be affecting or interfering with the person's performance.
counseling
Hot Topic is a fast growing clothing chain targeted to the alternative teen demographic. The owner and founder daily consults with her employees for suggestions on what the stores should carry. An employee suggested that the stores should carry a certain type of soda. The employee's suggestion was an example of ____ communications.
upward
in the model of the communication process presented in the text, _____ occurs when a message is put into a written, verbal, or symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver.
encoding
In the model of the communication process presented in text, ____ makes senders aware of possible miscommunications and enables them to continue communicating until the receiver understands the intended message.
feedback
because of ____, people exposed to the same information will often disagree about what they saw or heard.
perceptual filters
states that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the cause of other people's behavior.
attribution theory
is a kind of one-on-one communication used by managers to improve an employee's on-the-job performance or behavior.
coaching
is the withholding of information about organizational problems or issues by employees.
organizational silence
is the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don't know is consistent with what we already know.
closure
during a job interview, interviewers can use their knowledge of face and body movements to determine when interviewees are telling the truth. This knowledge is called
kinesics
in nonverbal communication, _____ is the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern (i.e., use of silences, pauses, or hesitations) of one's voice.
paralanguage
The three principles that characterize TMQ are continuous improvements, teamwork, and _____
customer focus and satisfaction
which of the following statements comparing goods and services is true?
goods can be collected and stored but services are perishable and unstorable
An article addressed to nurses who work in intensive care emphasize practices affirming the patient's intrinsic value and individual personality. One method to affirm the patient's intrinsic value is to demonstrate ____
empathy
A company decided to reduce its inventory by lowering their prices. The plan to get rid of excessive inventory was so successful that the company found itself completely sold out in just a couple of days. In other words, the company experienced ____
a stockout
the highest degree of processing occurs in ____ operations
make-to-order
the purpose of _____ is to recognize U.S. companies for their achievements in quality and business performance and to raise awareness of how quality and performance excellence can be used to create a competitive edge.
the Baldrige Award
the lowest of degree of processing occurs in _____ operations, where a company orders parts and assembles standardized products before receiving customer orders.
make-to-stock
the three key parts of material requirements planning (MRP) are ___
the master production schedule, the bill of materials, and inventory records
the ability to consistently perform a service well is referred to as service _____
reliability
refers to restoring customer satisfaction to strongly dissatisfied customers
service recovery
the product quality characteristic of _____ is defined as the mean time before product failure.
durability
companies relying on a trucking company providing just-in-time (JIT) transportation would _____
expect the chemical and dry bulk procedures to be delivered as they are needed by the production line
is a ticket-based system that indicates when to reorder inventory.
Kanban
is the number of times per year that a company sells or replaces its average inventory.
Inventory Turnover
inventories include the basic inputs in a manufacturing process.
raw materials
is a deviation in the form, condition, or appearance of a product from the quality standard for that product.
variation
which of the following statements about ISO 9000 is true?
all of these statements about ISO 9000 are true
(chapter 18)
most companies define product ___ in terms of how easy or difficult it is to fix a product,
serviceability
which of the following is NOT a well-known technique for managing inventory?
progressive inventory management (PIM)
which of the following is NOT a kind of inventory a manufacturer would keep in stock?
nonrenewable materials
decentralization
leads to faster decision making and more satisfied customers and employees
in terms of the chain-of-command, _____ authority is the right to command immediate subordinates, while ____ authority is the right to advise but not command others who are not subordinates
line; staff
while ____ emphasizes jobs and their authority relationships, _____ emphasizes the activities through which work gets done in the organization
organizational structure; organizational process
hallmark has four departments. these departments are (1) flowers and gifts, (2) cards and e-cards, (3) hallmark collectibles, and (4) photo albums and scrapbooks. hallmark uses ____ departmentalization.
product
of all types of departmentalization, ____ departmentalization requires the highest level of management skill for successful implementation
matrix
is the degree to which a job gives workers the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish their jobs
autonomy
with _____ departmentalization, most employees report to two bosses
matrix
a(n) ___ organization is one that is characterized by broadly defined jobs and responsibilities, loosely defined, frequently changing roles, and decentralized authority and horizontal communication based on task knowledge
organic
____ departmentalization is defined as organizing work and workers into separate units responsible for particular business functions or areas of expertise
functional
____ is the degree to which a job is perceived to have a substantial impact on others inside or outside the organization
task significance
_____ involves assigning direct authority and responsibility to a subordinate to complete tasks for which the manager is normally responsible
delegation of authority
large accounting agencies typically have separate departments that deal with households, businesses, and governments. this allows them to better serve the needs of their clients by using ____ departmentalization
customer
The Ryerson University Library is organized in a hierarchy with six unit heads reporting to a chief librarian. Within these units are fifteen librarians and forty-seven full-time staff. One of the tools used in the organizational development of the library was to systematically move employees from one job to another to give them an opportunity to learn and use different skills. The Ryerson University Library used _____
job rotation
an organization that has increased the number of different tasks that a worker performs withing one particular job has engaged in ____
job enlargement
a(n) ____ organization is an organization that is characterized by specialized jobs and responsibilities, precisely defined, unchanging roles, and a rigid chain-of-command based on centralized authority and vertical communication
mechanistic
is a fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance such as cost, quality, service, and speed
reengineering
is a general term that refers to subdividing work and workers into separate organizational units that are responsible for completing particular tasks
departmentalization
is a feeling of intrinsic motivation, in which workers perceive their work to have meaning and perceive themselves to be competent, having an impact, and capable self-determination
empowerment
job specialization can result in
employee boredom
is the process of solving problems by consistently applying the same rules, procedures, and processes
standardization
a group of workers in a medical examiner's office decided that they would not wear blue jeans to work because such casual wear seemed unprofessional. this informal agreement was made even through the office did not have a dress code. the workers created a
norm
which of the following kinds of team is always temporary
project team
is the extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain with it
cohesiveness
the ____ is purposefully composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization
cross-functional team
minority domination tends to be a particular problem in ____
groups of ten or larger
which of the following is the only type of responsibility given to traditional work groups
executive the task
team rewards that depend on ___ are the key to rewarding team behaviors and efforts
team performance rather than individual performance
affective conflict ___
typically decreases team cohesiveness
E-Lab (the "e" stands for experience) has project teams perform field research for its clients. one team had to spend time riding in the back seat of a squad car, accompanying cops on drug raids, as part of research for a new communications device for police departments. Another team studied how people get sick with a cold to create a new over-the-counter cold remedy. Often clients give team members extremely ambitious goals which the team members initially have no idea how to solve. In other words, project teams are given ___
stretch goals
in the autonomy continuum (which shows how five kinds of teams differ in terms of autonomy), the correct sequence, from low team autonomy to high team autonomy, is ____
traditional work groups, employee involvement teams, semi-autonomous work groups, self-managing teams, and self-designing teams
teams are typically required when
tasks require multiple perspectives
a(n) ___ is defined as a team composed of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who use telecommunications and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task
virtual team
is a compensation system in which companies share the financial value or performance gains such as productivity, cost savings, or quality with their works
gainsharing
which of the following statements about team development is true
the growth stages are forming, norming, and performing
which of the following types of teams has the authority to change their composition as well as all of their tasks and work methods
self-designing teams
how would you respond to the following statement? "Group conflict is always bad."
cognitive conflict is strongly associated with improvements in team performance
occurs when workers withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work
social loafing
a team has finally matured into a fully-functioning team at the ____ stage of development
performing
which of the following is a reason teamwork can be more satisfying than traditional work
all of these are reasons why
(chapter 10)
an organization engaged in _____ its work team members is training them in how to do all or most of the jobs performed by the other team memebers
cross training
the fact that a 98-pound job candidate is not hired as a dock worker to move 60-pound boxes of produce is legal as a result of
bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs)
References Etc will pose as a prospective employer, call a prior employer on an employee's behalf, and find out what the former employer is saying. If the prior employer provides unsubstantiated negative information, then the job applicant ____
can sue for defamation
one of the reasons items manufactured in Southeast Asia are imported into the United States less expensively is that workers are paid a small amount of money for each item produced. the manufactures operating in Southeast Asia use what type of pay plan
piecework
which of the following types of tests accurately predicts job performance in almost all kinds of jobs
cognitive ability tests
which of the following is an external recruiting method
advertising
which of the following statements about performance appraisal is true
most employees and managers dislike the performance appraisal process
the U.S. chemical industry faces a looming shortage of process operators and is hiring new ones as fast as it can. the average age of an effective process operator is 50. a wave of retirements among these highly qualified and experienced operators in coming years will create openings for as many as 10,000 operator in the chemical industry. the retirement of the current operators is an example of
dysfunctional turnover
is unintentional discrimination in which there is a substantially different rate of selection in hiring, promotion, or other employment decisions that works to the disadvantage of members of a particular race, sex, age, ethnicity, or protected group.
adverse impact
according the the Americans with Disabilities Act, disabilities (and reasonable accommodations for them) should be discussed ___
only after a job offer has been made
the ___ interview uses only standardized, job related interview questions that are prepared ahead of time and asked of all candidates
structured
is a performance appraisal process in which feedback is obtained from the boss, subordinates, peers, and coworkers as well as the employees themselves
360-feedback
is intentional discrimination that occurs when people are purposefully not given the same hiring, promotion, or membership opportunities because of their race, sex, age, ethnic group, national origin, or religious beliefs
disparate treatment
to minimize the problems inherent in firing employees, managers should do with of the following
before firing employees, managers should give them a change to improve
are procedures used to verify the truthfulness and accuracy of information that applicants provide about themselves and to uncover negative, job related background information not provided by applicants
background checks
is a rule of thumb used by the courts and the EEOC to determine whether there is evidence of adverse impact. a violation of this rule occurs when the selection rate for a protected group is less than a specified of the selection rate for a non-protected group
80% rule
a study in the construction industry found that when equipment is stolen from building sites, workers are the culprits 82% of the time. if background checks reduce employee thievery over a period of time and throughout the industry, then this selection process would be
validated
help companies meet the legal requirement that their human resource decisions be job related
job specifications, job analyses, and job descriptions
to improve traditional performance appraisal feedback sessions, it is recommended that managers
base performance appraisal feedback on self-appraisals
is the form of sexual harassment in which employment outcomes such as hiring, promotion, or simply keeping one's job depend on whether an individual submits to sexual harassment
quid pro quo sexual harassment
which of the following is an internal recruiting method
job posting
someone [is] described as having a mind-boggling breadth of his curiosity. in terms of the Big Five Personality Dimensions, this person would be described as having a high degree of
openness to experience
the two basic types of diversity training programs are
awareness training and skills-based diversity training
people with the Big Five Dimension of ____ respond well under stress
emotional stability
which of the Big Five Personality measures has the greatest impact on behavior in organizations
conscientiousness
unlike ____, which punishes companies for not achieving specific gender and race differences in their work forces, ____ programs seek to benefit both organizations and their employees by encouraging organizations to value all kinds of differences
affirmative action; diversity
diversity helps companies grow by
improving marketplace understanding
to make sure that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else, organizations can ____
do all of these
(chapter 12)
is a barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing to the top jobs in an organization
glass ceiling
is the relatively stable set of behaviors, attitudes, and emotions displayed over time that makes people different from each other
personality
refers to the degree to which someone is cooperative, polite, flexible, forgiving, good natured, tolerant, and trusting
agreeableness