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is best known for his role in Hawthrone Studies

Elton May

Frank & Lillian Gilbreth are important to management b/c

they used motion studies to eliminate unnecessary motions form the work process

Frederick Taylor is famous for

creating the principles of scientific management

Mary Parker Follett believed managers typically deal w/conflict in one of three ways


is responsible for the fact that most products are manufactured using standardized, interchangeable parts

Eli Whitney

Hawthrone Studies showed how _____ can influence work group performance, for better or worse

group cohesiveness

The goal of scientific management is to

find the one best way to perform each task

is best know for developing the 5 functions of managers & the 14 principles of management

Henri Fayol

a bureaucracy

is the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience

The Gantt chart

is a chart that shows when & where tasks need to be completed so that a job can be completed in a timely fashion

The manager of a company that produces a soy-based sausage wants to conduct a competitive analysis. During this competitive analysis, he should look at

all of these
(chapter 3 quiz)

An emphasis on _____ is likely to decrease opportunistic behavior but will never completely eliminate it

relationship behavior

is a tactic in which an advocacy group actively tries to convince consumers not to purchase a company's product or service

Product boycott

Which of the following is a characteristic of successful organizational culture

All of these
(chapter 3 quiz)

Which of the following statements about corporate culture is true

Corporate cultures are very difficult to change

For a fast-food restaurant chain that is famous for its small, square hamburgers, Which of the following would be a component of its sociocultural environment

the fact most consumers prefer eating out rather than at home

Which of the following is a component of a book publisher's general environment & will indirectly influence how it does business

a trend toward less leisure time

refers to the events and trends inside an organization that affect management, employees, and the organizational culture

internal environment

Tourism was not the only travel-associated industry that has been visibly hurt by what happened on 9/11. People decided to vacation at home and sales of luggage and similar travel gear decreased significantly. Sales of home swimming pools increased. The decision to stay at home reflects a change in attitudes toward the perceived safety of long-distance traveling. This is an example of a change in the


is used to refer to a company's practice of identifying and addressing customer trends and problems after they occur

reactive customer monitoring

the first step managers use to make sense of their changing environments

environmental scanning

fear of a lawsuit prevents many employers from giving totally honest recommendations to former employees. This reflects a change in the _____ component of the general environment


When Susan started work at Henderson Textile Co., she was amazed at its employees who would take 30 minute restroom breaks, leave for the day at 2 pm, and generally belittle the company's management. Such employees' actions most likely developed over time as a result of a faulty

organizational culture

in terms of external organizational environments, the ____ environment affects all organizations while the _____ environment is unique to each company.

general; specific

When Samsonite purchased American Tourister, one of the first things the new management did was to eliminate the American Tourister Gorilla mascot (which had appeared in all American Tourister ads for years and which represented the quality construction of American Tourister luggage). The gorilla had been a symbol of quality and commitment for American Tourister employees. The executive order to remove the gorilla posters from the walls of offices and factories was one of the means Samsonite used to change the organizational culture at American Tourister. The gorilla posters were an example of

visible artifacts

Kodak makes digital cameras and paper for prints. Kodak would view the growing popularity of digital cameras as a _______ in its external environment if it considered how digital cameras affect sales of cameras that use film. On the other hand, Kodak would view the growing popularity of digital cameras as an ______ in its external environment if it considered the amount of Kodak processing paper used in printing pictures made by digital cameras

threat; opportunity

which of the following companies is most likely operating in a dynamic environment

a video game manufacturer

more premature babies than ever before are surviving due to improvements in medical knowledge and care. This improved survival rate can be attributed to the ____ component of hospitals


suppose that a Mexican car manufacturer wants to export cars to Guatemala. Knowing that the distribution of income w/in Guatemala is highly unequal and that about 75% of the population is below the poverty line would be an ______ component in the manufacturer's general environment


which of the following is a component of the specific environment that would directly influence a restaurant's day-to-day operation

its regular customers

what is social responsibility

a business' obligation to pursue policies, make decisions, and take actions that benefit society

According to the SMART guidelines, goals should be


a manufacturer of suntan lotion could set a ____ goal to increase revenues by 8% over the next 5 years and a ____ goal to increase sales next June in the Miami Beach area by 3%

distal; proximal

the _____ is a decision making method in which a panel of experts responds to questions and to each other until an agreement is reached on how a specific issue should be handled

Delphi technique

top management is responsible for developing long-term ___ that make clear how the company will serve customers and position itself against competitiors in the next 2-5 years

strategic plans

approach to decision making is a method in which an individual or subgroup is assigned the role of critic

devil's advocate

is a systematic process of defining problems, evaluating alternatives, and choosing optimal solutions

rational decision making

are standing plans that indicate the specific steps that should be taken in response to a particular event


a ____ should be brief, enduring, inspirational, clear, and consistent with widely shared company beliefs and values

vision statement

which of the following is a commonly used method for increasing goal commitment

encouraging worker participation in goal setting

groupthink occurs in

highly cohesive groups where there is a great deal of pressure to agree with each other

new employees were instructed never to wear loose fitting clothes when working around the canning machine. What kind of a standing plan is described in this example

rules and regulations

which of the following is not a step in the management by objectives (MBO) process

jointly develop operational plans

____ occurs when managers choose an alternative that is good enough, rather than the best possible alternative


____ plans are plans that specify how a company will use resources, budgets, and people to accomplish specific goals w/in its mission


in the 1960s, Coca-Cola executives in Atlanta learned there was a bottler in the Colombian jungle that was bottling pirated Coke in dumped bottles. Coke decided in the ____ stage of the rational decision making process that it had to either bring some sort of legal action against the unauthorized bottler, ignore it, or buy it.

generation of alternative courses of action

____ plans direct the behavior, efforts, and priorities of operative employees for periods ranging from one 1 to 6 months


is the type of operational plan that saves managers time because it is created once and then used repeatedly to handle frequently recurring events

standing plan

exists when there is a gap between a desired state (what managers want) and an existing state (the situation that the managers are facing).


according to the text, which of the following is a pitfall of planning

a false sense of certainty based on faulty assumptions

which of the following steps in the decision making process can be done better by groups than by individuals

defining the problem and generating alternatives

model holds that the only social responsibility that businesses have is to maximize profit


which of the following statements about social responsibility is true

economic and legal responsibilities play a larger role in a company's social responsibility than do ethical and discretionary responsibilities

Mark Graf, a security specialist at the Rocky Flats nuclear facility outside Denver, became alarmed about the temporary removal of 450 kilograms of plutonium oxide from a vault-like room to a "soft room" protected by drywall that you could punch a hole through. Graf eventually had to take his concerns to the media before the plutonium was stored again in a safe location. Graf's actions can be described as


which of the following statements about social responsibility and economic performance is true

social responsibility can sometime create significant costs for a company

____ stakeholders are any groups that can influence or be influenced by the company and can affect public perception about its socially responsible behavior


Shell's efforts to sink an abandoned offshore oil-storage buoy, were derailed by Greenpeace in Germany, which mounted a well-orchestrated public relations blitz that caused Shell's gasoline sales to plunge by 50% at some German stations. This is an example of how _____ stakeholders can influence organizational strategy


historically, ____ responsibility means making a profit by producing a product valued by society. It has been the most basic social responsibility of a business


____ stakeholders are groups, such as shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, governments, and local communities, on which the organization depends for long-term survival


various persons or groups with a legitimate interest in a company's actions are called


Specialized Bicycle Components, Inc. introduced the first major production mountain bike in 1980. 2/3 of its profits from the sale of mountain bikes. It is recognized worldwide for its ability to design and produce superior mountain bikes. This ability is its

distinctive competence

An ____ is a resource that is impossible or extremely costly or difficult for other firms to duplicate

imperfectly imitable

an organization is experiencing ____ when there is a discrepancy between upper management's intended strategy and the strategy actually implemented by the lower levels of management

strategic dissonance

____ also called a SWOT analysis for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, is an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses in an organization's internal environment and the opportunities and threats in its external environment

situational analysis

Top-Flight manufactures Strata golf calls and prices these balls at about three times what ordinary golf balls cost. The Strata ball sells exceptionally well because customers perceive its patented three-layer construction to improve handling and increase distance. The patent on these golf balls gives Top-Flite a

sustainable competitive advantage

in any organization, the ___ are the less visible, internal decision making routines, problem solving processes, and organizational cultures that determine how efficiently inputs can be turned into outputs

core capabilities

when Clorox Corp., a manufacturer of bleach and bleach-based cleaning products, acquired Kingsford Charcoal and Prime Choice brand steak sauce; it was an example of

unrelated diversification

Specialized Bicycle Components, Inc., introduced the first major production mountain bike in 1980. 2/3 of its profits come from the sale of mountain bikes. Specialized bikes have a large share of a fast-growing market. According to the BCG matrix, specialized mountain bikes would be classified as


an organization is experiencing ____ when it is reluctant to change strategies or competitive practices that have been successful in the past

competitive inertia

according to Michael Porter, 5 industry forces determine an industry's overall attractiveness and potential for long-term profitability. Which of the following is one of those forces Porter identified

bargaining power of suppliers

in the typical S-curve pattern of innovation, small amounts of effort will result in significant increases in performance

at the midpoint of the cycle

patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage are called

innovation streams

approach to innovation assumes that innovation is occurring w/in a highly uncertain environment and that the key to fast product innovation is to use intuition, flexible options, and hand-on experience to reduce uncertainty and accelerate learning and understanding


are workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged

creative work environment

organizational ____ is the successful implementation of creative ideas in organizations


refers to the production of novel and useful ideas


during the ___ phase of a technology cycle, companies innovate by lowering the cost and improving the functioning and performance of the dominant design

incremental change

the development of the DVD player was a source of ____ to companies in the movie industry just as VHS tapes had once been

technological discontinuity

is the individual who is formally in charge of guiding a change effort

change agent

a technology ____ begins with the birth of a new technology and ends with that technology reaches its limits and dies as it is replaced by a newer, substantially better technology


the goals of the compression approach to innovation are

speed, lower costs, and incremental change of dominant design

which of the following methods for managing resistance to change should only be used as a last resort or under crisis conditions


when resistance to change is based on insufficient, incorrect, or misleading information, managers should use ___ as an approach to manage resistance

education and communication

the 3 steps in the basic process of managing organizational change outlined by Kurt Lewin are

change intervention

which of the following is an organizational impediment to creativity in a work environment

all of these
(chapter 7 quiz)

change focuses primarily on changing company procedures, management philosophy, or employee behavior


according to John Kotter, which of the following actions will adversely influence refreezing efforts

declaring victory too soon

the typical S-curve pattern of innovation, increased effort (i.e., money, research and development) brings only small improvements in technological performance

at both the beginning and end of the cycle

according to Kurt Lewin, _____ lead to differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time, while ____ supports the status quo, or the existing state of conditions in an organization

change forces; resistance forces

which of the following is one of the sources of resistance to change


According to _____, people will be motivated when they perceive they are being treated fairly

equity theory

In a(n) _____ reinforcement schedule, consequences are delivered following a specific number of behaviors

fixed ratio

Users of credit and debt cards that earn the owners money or rewards towards future purchases, is an example of

positive reinforcement

how do employees try to restore equity when they perceive that they have been treated unfairly?

by doing any of these
(Chapter 13)

Marketers often appeal to consumers' needs as defined by Maslow's hierarchy. A lock manufacturer, shows how much protection its locks provide and a cleaning company developed several types of wipes to eliminate concerns about infectious germs. Both marketers are appealing to which need as defined by Maslow?


for the goal-setting theory to work, goals must

do all of these
(Chapter 13)

states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and they are often attractive rewards

expectancy theory

the two basic kinds of inequity are

underreward and overreward

which of the following is an example of an intrinsic reward

a sense of achievement

managers can motivate employees to increase their efforts by

asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs

which of the following is an example of extrinsic reward

salary increase

according to some industrial psychologists, _____ is a function of motivation times ability times situational constraints

job performance

Driving in heavy traffic makes Hal very anxious and sometimes angry. He leaves home earlier than usual one morning and doesn't run into heavy traffic. He leaves home earlier again the next morning, and again he avoids heavy traffic. His behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic. What kind of reinforcement has occurred in this example?

negative reinforcement

France has 14 million smokers. More importantly, smokers in France are closely associated with the French culture. To reduce the number of smokers in the nation, the French government has increased the costs of cigarettes to a price twenty times greater than that charged in any other nation in the European Union. In terms of reinforcement theory, the French government is trying to use _____ to get people to quit smoking by making cigarettes less affordable and by reducing the discretionary income (or possibly the disposable income) of people who continue smoking.


According to the expectancy theory, _____ affect the conscious choices that people make about their motivation.

valence, expectancy, and instrumentality

reinforcement theory says behavior is a function of

its consequences

is the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated

distributive justice

according to the model of need satisfaction, an unsatisfied need produces


in equity theory, _____ are others with whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been treated fairly


a glass of water and shelter from a snowstorm would be examples of _____, and a gold necklace and tickets to see professional wrestling would not be

low-order needs

W.L. Gore is the company that created Gore-Tex among many other innovative products. W.L. Gore employees (known as associates) don't have titles or bosses in the traditional sense. Instead, associates make commitments to work on projects that they believe are most worthy of their time. At W.L. Gore, few leaders are appointed; leaders simply emerge as needed by the other employees or the project itself. The Gore company more than likely adheres to the _____ theory of leadership.


The founder and CEO of a medical products distributor, establishes ambitious goals for his employees and is confident that they will be able to achieve these goals. In terms of the path-goal theory, this founder and CEO is exhibiting a(n) _____ type of leadership.


which of the following traits refers to the tendency of leaders to remain even tempered and consistent in their outlook and the way they treat others even when things go wrong?

emotional stability

which of the following is a major concern of leaders (as opposed to managers)?

inspiring and motivating others

which of the following is the best leadership style for all situations?

none of these
(Chapter 14)

In many organizations, sales managers develop company-wide sales forecasts by asking members of the sales force to decide how much growth they anticipate in their individual sales territories. Sales managers then take the input from the individual salespeople and create the company-wide sales forecasts based on this information. In the normative decision model, this would be an example of a(n) _____ decision-making style.


according to the path-goal theory of leadership, _____ involves consulting employees for their suggestions and input before making decisions.

participative leadership

in terms of leadership behavior, the term _____ refers to the extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, supportive, and shows concern for employees.


People with Machiavellian personalities believe that virtually any type of behavior is acceptable if it helps satisfy needs or accomplish goals. Add that skill to someone with the ability to create strong bonds with followers and you have described a leader who is a(n)

unethical charismatic leader

relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior, form the basis for the ____ of leadership

trait theory

To save a company from bankruptcy, its CEO told its employees that he would eliminate 53% of the company's mechanics and reduce the compensation of the remaining mechanics by 26%. In terms of the normative decision theory, the CEO _____

made autocratic decisions

In Fiedler's contingency theory, the term ____ refers to the degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members.

situational favorableness

is based on an exchange process, in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance.

transactional leadership

According to the path-goal theory of leadership, what type of leadership is being practiced that involves letting employees know precisely what is expected of them, giving them specific guidelines for performing tasks, scheduling work, setting standards of performance, and making sure that people follow standard rules and regulations.

directive leadership

research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily on ____, consideration impacts primarily on ____

job performance; job satisfaction

the two types of visionary leadership are

charismatic leadership
transformational leadership

leaders who possess the trait of ____ are more decisive and assertive and more likely to gain others' confidence.


transformational leaders

are accurately described by all of these
(Chapter 14)

According to the path-goal theory of leadership, what leadership style involves being friendly and approachable to employees, showing concern for them and their welfare, treating them as equals, and creating a friendly climate.

supportive leadership

College football coaching requires that coaches design every facet of practices, set goals for their players, determine schedules, and even direct all of the plays during the games. College football coaching uses ____ type of managing.

initiating structure

is the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations while ignoring, screening out, or not accepting inconsistent.

selective perceptions

is feedback that is intended to be helpful, corrective, and/or encouraging and is aimed at correcting performance deficiencies and motivating employees.

constructive feedback

In the perceptual process, _____ is the process of noticing or becoming aware of particular stimuli.


In the perceptual process, ____ is the process of remembering interpreted information.


When the CEO of a large corporation explained to their unionized employees why the company had to reduce healthcare coverage for its employees, he was engaging in _____ communications.


the two primary types of grapevine communications networks are

cluster and gossip

is the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes).

a self-serving bias

is feedback that is disapproving w/out any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient.

destructive feedback

In the perceptual process, ____ is the process of attaching meaning to new knowledge.


is communication with someone about non-job-related issues that may be affecting or interfering with the person's performance.


Hot Topic is a fast growing clothing chain targeted to the alternative teen demographic. The owner and founder daily consults with her employees for suggestions on what the stores should carry. An employee suggested that the stores should carry a certain type of soda. The employee's suggestion was an example of ____ communications.


in the model of the communication process presented in the text, _____ occurs when a message is put into a written, verbal, or symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver.


In the model of the communication process presented in text, ____ makes senders aware of possible miscommunications and enables them to continue communicating until the receiver understands the intended message.


because of ____, people exposed to the same information will often disagree about what they saw or heard.

perceptual filters

states that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the cause of other people's behavior.

attribution theory

is a kind of one-on-one communication used by managers to improve an employee's on-the-job performance or behavior.


is the withholding of information about organizational problems or issues by employees.

organizational silence

is the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don't know is consistent with what we already know.


during a job interview, interviewers can use their knowledge of face and body movements to determine when interviewees are telling the truth. This knowledge is called


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