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Ecology Quiz 3

Ecology Quiz 3 - Tigga Kingsten
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Darwin is often considered the father of evolutionary thought. Which of the following terms is/are not part of Darwin's analysis?
Gene Frequencies
Phenotypic changes are always reflections of genotypic changes.
False
What does Evolution result from?
Mutations, natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow
Tracy's research on the chuckwalla lizard (Sauromalus obesus) indicated that there was a negative correlation with body size and elevation.
False
What does the Hardy - Weinberg principle state?
allelic frequencies within a population will not change unless certain conditions are met.
Ecotypes are local populations within a species that are genetically and phenotypically distinct due in part to local environmental adaptation.
True
What is the Hardy - Weinberg equation?
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.0
The transplant experiment conducted on Potentilla glandulosa determined that morphological changes occurred, but no genetic changes occurred within the various experimental populations.
False
What condition isn't included in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
Non-random mating
DNA sequencing is a molecular process used to study the exact nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule.
True
In a population of birds, the average beak size is selected against and the large and small sized beaks are selected for. What is this an example of?
Disruptive selection
The combination of genetics and environmental pressures can cause variations in phenotypes.
True
Within a population, if the average is selected for and the two opposing extremes are selected against. What is this an example of?
Stabilizing selection
What is the alternate form of a gene called?
allele
In a population of lizards, the average and long length tails are selected against and the short tails are selected for. What is this an example of?
directional selection
What did Losos, Warheit and Schoener's research on the brown anole (Anolis sagrei) determine?
both hind limb length positively correlated with perch diameter and difference in vegetation between the island of capture and island of release, positively correlated the anoles' morphological differences
Research on soapberry bugs (Jadera haematoloma) supports all of the following results except:
the soapberry bugs underwent developmental changes without genetic changes.
Case's research on the chuckwalla lizard (Sauromalus obesus) indicated that body size is positively correlated with ______________________.
Rainfall
The populations of Chihuahua spruce (Picea chihuahuana) have been fragmented due to changing climatic conditions. What has this resulted in?
Genetic Drift
Research conducted on the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) can be summarized in all of the following statements except:
increase in predation can contribute to local extinctions.
Molecular biology has helped scientists examine the genetics and evolution of different species. Which of the following sequences is correctly ordered?
PCR, restriction enzymes, restriction fragments, electrophoresis
_________________ are groups of enzymes with the same biochemical function
Isozymes
Why would a scientist choose to use DNA analysis rather than isozyme analysis when
investigating genetic variations?
non-lethal, non-injurious to the organism, repeat sampling over a period of time is possible, smaller sample size can be used for DNA analysis
Which of the following is not part of Darwin's theory of natural selection?
Fewer offspring are produced each generation than can be supported by the environment.
What did research by Douglas and Brunner on whitefish (Coregonus) populations in the Alps show?
local whitefish populations should be managed as separate units.
What results could Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey have expected to see if alpine, mid-elevation, and lowland populations of sticky cinquefoil (Potentilla glandulosa) were not genetically different?
all plants would grew equally well at all elevations
What are Locally adapted and genetically distinctive populations within a species are referred to as?
Ecotypes
What is the number of offspring contributed by an individual to future generations called?
Fitness
Which of the following are conditions necessary to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
No mutations, large populations, equal fitness, random mating
Analysis of the Hardy-Weinberg principle leads us to conclude that the potential for evolutionary change in natural populations is minimal.
False
What is the correct interpretation of the heritability of a trait given h2=1.0?
all phenotypic variation is due to genetic effects
___________ is a term applied to population or species that are found in a particular locality and nowhere else.
Endemic
Over time, average phenotypes become less common and the population becomes phenotypically more diverse as a result of _____________ selection.
disruptive
In a meta-analysis of the relationship between population size and heterozygosity, Frankham found..?
A strong positive correlation between population size and genetic diversity that was slightly weakened when data from E. coli were excluded
Kingston & Rossiter found evidence of genetic differentiation between the Rhinolophus philippinensis size morphs found on the same island
That was much about the same as the differentiation between island populations of R. euryotis, and much less than differentiation between the R. philippinensis size morphs and R. euryotis.
Kingston & Rossiter suggest that R. philippinensis presents a case for parallel speciation because
Large morphs from Australia are more closely related to intermediate morphs from Australia than to large morphs from Sulawesi.
What can evolution be defined as?
a change in gene frequencies in a population
Darwin believed the driving force behind evolution was selection by the environment.
True
Using microsatellite DNA, Douglas and Brunner concluded that populations of Coregonus found in the Alps were highly differentiated and should be managed as separate units.
True
For a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, in a situation where there are only two alleles at a particular locus, the proportions of genotypes are: SS = 0.64, Ss = 0.32, and ss = 0.04. Calculate the allele frequency for the recessive allele.
.2
For a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, in a situation where there are only two alleles at a particular locus, the allelic frequencies are: S=0.7 and s=0.3. Calculate the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype in the population.
.09
What can change population gene frequencies through random processes?
Genetic drift
Vila-Aiub and colleagues found that populations of the weed Sorghum halepense that have been persistently exposed to the herbicide, glyphosate, were not resistant to its effects
False