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Chapter 5: The American Revolution

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Olive Branch Petition
(July, 1775) Loyalty pledge sent to King George III that asked him to intercede with Parliament for peace
Second Continental Congress
(May, 1775) Met in Philadelphia three weeks after Lexington and Concord
Thomas Paine
Author of Common Sense; believed all the colonists should break ties with Great Britain
Thomas Jefferson
Primary author of the Declaration of Independence
Loyalists/Royalists/Tories
Colonists who supported the king
George Washington
Was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army
British Regulars
"Redcoats", or British troops
Thomas Gage
Commander of the British "Redcoats" in Boston who sent a large force to seize colonists' military supplies in Concord and ordered the arrest of resistance leaders, like Samuel Adams
Bunker Hill
(June 17, 1775) "Breeds Hill"; Was the bloodiest battle of the Revolutionary War; Was also the first true battle
Benedict Arnold
American general who led the failed attack at Quebec
William Howe
Another British general who was sent to Boston to further aggressive action
Horatio Gates
British general, Burgoyne, surrendered to him at Saratoga
1783
Treaty of Paris was signed in this year, ending the Revolutionary War
1781
Cornwalis surrendered to the Patriots in Yorktown in this year
John Hancock
He was president of the Second Continental Congress and the first to sign the Declaration of Independence
Battle of Trenton/ Battle of Princeton
American victory against the Hessians in Trenton; Washington saves the army by crossing the Deleware River; these battles gave Americans hope
Anglicans
Many were Loyalists; After the Revolution the power of their church was permanently weakened
minutemen
militia
George III
Signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the Revolutionary War
Yorktown
The last major battle of the Revolutionary War; Cornwalis surrendered here
Saratoga
This battle marked the turning point of the war
Richard Henry Lee
"These United Colonies are, and of a right ought to be, free and independent states."
Hessians
German mercenaries
Articles of Confederation
The nation's first constitution, adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution
July 4, 1776
The day the Declaration of Independence was signed and approved by Congress
Redcoats
A nickname for British soldiers
Georgia
Slaves constituted half or more of the population during the Revolutionary War in this colony
Philadelphia
Where the Declaration of Independence was signed; Where the Second Continental Congress met
Cornwallis
He surrendered to the Patriots at Yorktown
George Mason
Original idealist "all men are created equal"
Suffolk Resolves
Called for a repeal of the Intolerable Acts and for the colonists to enforce strict non-importation, make military preparations, arm themselves, resist the British, and enact other sanctions
Nathaniel Greene
Joined the southern army at King's Mountain
France
Allied with the Patriots after the Patriots won the Battle of Saratoga; supported the Patriots with extra supplies, troops, and a navy
Benjamin Franklin
He negotiated France's support for the colonists
King's Mountain
This battle marked the turning point of the Revolutionary War in the South
"camp followers"
Women who followed their men by choice or economics into war, kept morale up and performed household tasks
Abigail Adams
She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create
privateers
Privately owned warships commissioned to prey on the commercial shipping or warships of an enemy nation
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Called for the complete seperation of church and state
Anthony Wane
Defeated the Northwest Indians in 1794 at Fallen Timbers
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
Shay's Rebellion
Frightened many elites and made them believe the Revolution was not yet over; It also convinced many colonists that a stronger central government was necessary