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MCAT Psychology and Sociology Lecture 3: Identity and the Individual
Terms in this set (44)
Defined by the experience of unwarranted fear and anxiety, physiological tension, and behaviors associated with the emotional and physical experience of anxiety.
A line of research into the causes that people use to explain the observed behaviors of others.
Theory that states that personality is constructed by a series of learning experiences that occur through interactions between the individual and their environment.
Theory that focuses on biological contributions to certain traits. Assumes that a person's genome contributes to the formation of personality.
Takes into account social judgments (law and peer pressure)
Pervasive feelings of sadness and hopelessness and/or the loss of interest in activities that an individual usually enjoys.
Assigning the cause to an inherent quality or desire
Defined by the experience of dissociation: a split between different aspects of psychological functioning.
Re-envisioned the psychosexual stages as psychosocial ones.
fundamental attribution error
The tendency to automatically favor dispositional attributions over situational ones when judging other people.
Theory that says that people continually seek experiences that make them better, more fulfilled individuals. Points to the role of an individual in shaping his or her own personality.
A person's view of who they are in terms of both internal factors, including personality traits, and social or external factors, like group membership.
Allows the child to view him- or herself as similar to the another person.
kohlberg's theory of moral development
Proposed that developing children progress through a predictable sequence of stages of moral reasoning.
Proposed a theory that goes further in explicitly recognizing the involvement of social and cultural factors in development.
locus of control
A person's belief about the extent to which internal or external factors play a role in shaping his or her life.
Psychological disorders that deal with disruptions in emotion that influence personal functioning.
People learn from the experiences of others and apply the lessons of previous experiences to new situations.
The collection of lasting characteristics that makes a person unique.
The development of personality traits that cause psychological and social dysfunction.
Advances beyond personal and interpersonal considerations, rising to the level of universal principles and fully-developed ides about right and wrong (moral reasoning).
Theory that proposes a universal personality structure that contributes both to behavior and to differences between people. Focuses on internal processes.
Sets of psychological abnormalities that are maladaptive to the individual.
Describes moral judgments that are based solely on consideration of the anticipated consequences of behavior.
A group that provides him or her with a model for appropriate actions, values, and worldviews.
Adopting the part of another person, either by imitating behaviors associated with specific social parts or by taking the other person's point of view in a social interaction.
The most personal aspect of identity. It is the knowledge of oneself as a person both separate from other people and constant throughout changing situations.
The feeling of being able to carry out an action successfully.
Refers to a person's overall value judgment of him- or herself.
The tendency to attribute one's success to internal factors while attributing one's failures to external (environmental) factors.
The concept of enduring personality traits is fatally flawed because of the variations in behavior that occur across different situations.
Assigning the cause to an environmental force.
social cognitive theory
Theory that focuses on learning experiences and observable behaviors. However, it differs in that it considers the contributions of an individual's mental life and personal choices.
The perception of oneself as a member of certain social groups.
The process by which developing individuals learn the values, norms, and appropriate behaviors of their society, continuing throughout the lifespan.
somatic symptom and related disorders
Characterized by bodily symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, and motor problems, along with associated psychological symptoms that cause significant problems for the individual.
Infants are thought to start life with a certain ____, an innate, genetically influenced "baseline" of personality that includes the infant's tendency towards certain patterns of emotion and social interaction.
Theory that states that personality consists of a set of characteristics that vary between people and are stable over the course of the lifetime, regardless of environmental factors.
Characteristics that vary between people and are stable over the course of the lifetime.
Particularly useful in separating the effects of genetics and the environment.
Most primitive part of personality, which seeks instant gratification with no consideration for morality or social norms.
Develops later in life through internalization of society's rules for moral behavior, learned primarily through interactions with caregivers.
The part of personality that is forced to direct behavior in a way that balances the demands of the id and the sugerego.
States that behavior, personal factors, and the environment continually interact and influence each other.
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