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Chapters 14, 15, 16, 27, 28, 26
Terms in this set (54)
The flipper of a seal is homologous with the _____________ of a bird, and both of these are homologous was the ________ of a human.
The wing of a bird and the wing of a butterfly are described ____________ structures that arose as a result of ___________ evolution.
Remnants of structures in animals that have no use for them, such as the small hind leg bones of whales, are described as _______ structures.
The finding that all organisms share the same genetic code provides evidence that all descended from ___________.
Further evidence is provided by the fact that all cells use roughly the same set of _________ to build proteins, and all cells use the molecule ________ as an energy carrier.
George Cuvier espoused a concept called ________ to explain layers of rock with embedded fossils.
Charles Lyell, building on the work of James Hutton, proposed an alternative explanation called ___________ which states that layers of rock and many other geological features can be explained by gradual processes that occurred in the past just as they do in the present.
Uniformitarianism provided important support for evolution because it required that Earth be extremely __________
The process by which inherited characteristics of populations change over time is called _____________
Variability among individuals is the result of changes called _________ that occur in the hereditary molecule _________
The process by which individuals with traits that provide an advantage in their natural habitats are more successful at reporting is called __________
People who breed animals or plants can produce large changes in their characteristics in a relatively short time, a process called ___________
Darwin's postulate 2 states that ____________
many traits are inherited
The work of _________ provided the first experimental evidence for this postulate.
The _________ provides a simple mathematical model for a non-evolving population, also called an __________ population, in which ___________ frequencies do not change over time. Are such populations likely to be found in nature?
Different versions of the same gene are called __________
These versions of the same gene arise as a result of changes in the sequence of _______ that form the gene. These changes are caused by __________.
An individual with two identical copies of a given gene is described as being ___________ for that gene, while an individual with two different versions of that gene is described as __________.
An organism's ________ refers to the specific alleles found within chromosomes, while the traits that these alleles produce are called it's _____________. Which of these does natural selection act on? _____________
A random form of evolution is called __________. This form of evolution will only occur in populations that are ________. Two important causes of this form of evolution are _________ and ________. Which of these would apply to a population started by a breeding pair that was stranded on an island? __________
Competition is most intense between members of a __________.
Predators and their prey act as agents of _________ on one another, resulting in a form of evolution called __________. This results in the evolution of characteristics called ___________ that help both predators and their prey survive and reproduce.
The evolutionary fitness of an organism is measured by its success at ________.
The fitness of an organism can change if its _________ changes.
A species is a group of _________ that evolves __________.
The biological species concept identifies species on the basis of their ______________.
The biological species concept cannot be applied to species that reproduce _______________.
Occurs when members of two populations have different courtship behaviors: ______________; occurs when hybrid offspring fail to survive to reproduce: ___________; occurs when memebers of two populations have different breeding seasons: _______________; occurs when sperm from one species fails to fertilize the eggs of another species: ______________; occurs when the sexual organs of two species are incompatible: __________.
Formation of a new species occurs when two populations of an existing species first become _________ and then ___________.
The process in which geographic separation of parts of a population leads to the formation of new species is called _________.
Isolated populations may diverge through the action of ___________ or ____________.
The process by which many new species arise in a relatively short period of time is known as __________. This process often occurs when a species arrives in a previously unoccupied ___________.
habitat or environment
A species may be at higher risk of extinction if its geographic range includes a __________ area, or if its food or habitat requirements are _____________.
The leading direct cause of extinction is ___________.
Organisms that interact sereve as agents of ________ on one another. This results in ___________, which is the process by which species evolve adaptations to one another. Four types of community interactions described in this chapter are __________, ____________, __________, and ___________.
Predators may be meat eaters, called ________, or plant eaters, called _______. Both predators and their prey may blend into their surroundings by using _________. Preadtors are generally ____________ and less ___________ than their prey.
abundant or numerous
Competition occurs whenever two different populations within a community have overlapping _________. The concept that no two species with identical niches can coexist indefinitely is called the _____________ principle.
Fill in the types of coloration or mimicry: Used by a prey to signal that it is distasteful:__________; used by a moth with large eyespots on its wings:________; mimicry of a poisonous animal by a non-poisonous animal:__________; mimicry used by a predator to attract its prey:____________
Fill in the appropriate type of community interaction: Bacteria, living in the human gut, that synthesize vitamin K: _____________; bacteria that cause illness:_____________; a deer eating grass:_____________; a tick sucking blood:_____________; a bee pollinating a flower:___________; kudzu covering trees:_____________
mutualism or symbiosis
A somewhat predictable change in community structure over time is called_________. This process takes two forms. Which of these forms would start with bare rock? ___________ Which would occur after a forest fire?_________ A relatively stable community that is the end product of this process is called a _________ community. A mowed lawn in suburbia is an example of a ___________ community.
Nearly all life gets it engery from __________, which is captured by the process of ___________. In contrast, __________ are contantly recycled during proecess called _____________.
Photosynthetic organisms are called wither __________ or _________. The energy that these store and make available to other organisms is called _____________.
net primary production
Feeding levels within ecosystems are also called ____________. An illustration of these levels with only be organism at each level is called a ____________. Feeding relationships are most accurately depicted as _____________.
In general, only about _________ percent of the energy available in one trophic level is captured by the level above it.
Photosynthetic organisms make up the first trophic level. Organisms in higher trophic levels are collectively called ___________ or _________. Photosynthetic organisms are consumed by organisms collectively called ____________ or _____________. Animals that feed on other animals are called ____________ or _______________. Organisms that feed on wastes and dead bodies are called ______________ and __________.
During the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen gas is captured from its atmospheric reserivor by __________ in the soil, and then returned to this reserivor by ________. The two forms of nitrogen that are used by plants are __________ and ___________.
Two relatively short-termed reservoirs for carbon are the _________ and __________. Carbon in these reservoirs is in the form of ____________. Two long-term reserviors for carbon are __________ and ____________.
Two examples of density-independent forms of environmental resistance are ________ and ___________. Two important types of deseity-dependent environmental resistance are _________ and __________.
freezing, drought, flood, fire, storms, habitat destruction
Graphs that plot how the numbers of individuals born at the same time change over time are called ________. The specific type of curve that applies to a dandelion that releases 300 seeds, most of which never germinate is called _________. The curve for humans is an example of _________.
The type of growth that occurs in a population that grows by 0.1% per year is called ___________. Does this form of growth add the same number of individuals each year? ___________ What shape of curve is generated if this type of growth is graphed? ___________ Can this type of growth be sustained indefinitely? ________
The maximum population size that can be sustained indefinitely without damaging the environment is called the __________. A growth curve in which a population first grows logarithmically and then levels off at (or below) this maximum sustainable size is called a ________ curve, or a __________ curve.
The type of spatial distribution likely to occur when resources are localized is __________. The type of spatial distribution that results when pairs of animals defend breeding territories is __________. The least common form of distribution is _____________.
An expanding population has an age structure diagram shaped like a _____________. If the sides of an age structures diagram are roughly vertical, the population is __________. The shape of the age structure diagram for developing countries collectively is ___________.
A population grows whenever the number of _________ plus _________ exceeds the number of _______ plus __________. The growth rate of a population increases whenever the age at which the organism first reproduces _____________, when the frequency of reproduction ________________, and when the length of the organism's reproductive life span ____________.
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The longest known species of worms is the earthworm Microchaetus rappi of South Africa; in 1937, a 6.7-m-long specimen was collected from the Transvaal. The shortest worm is Chaetogaster annandalei, which measures less than 0.51 mm in length. M. rappi is _____ order(s) of magnitude longer than C. annandalei.
Relate the statement "You can't get something for nothing" to the law of conservation of mass.