Functions of the Skeleton?
Support, Protection, Movement, Electrolyte Balance, Acid-Base Balance, Blood Formation
Bone with compact & spongy bone, marrow cavity, articular cartilage, & epiphyses & diaphyses?
Layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the joint surface where one bone meets another?
Area of hyaline cartilage that separates the marrow spaces of the epiphysis & diaphysis?
Epiphyseal Plate (Growth Plate)
Organic matter of the bone matrix?
Collagen, carbohydrate, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, glycoproteins
Inorganic matter of the bone matrix?
85% Hydroxyapatite, 10% calcium carbonate, & 5% fluoride, sodium, potassium, & magnesium
Consists of slivers of bone called spicules, thin plates of bone called trabeculae, & spaces filled with red bone marrow?
Like thick blood with reticular fibers, immature cells, hemopoietic, & found in the vertebra, ribs, sternum, pelvic girdle, & proximal heads of the adult femur & humerus?
Red Blood Marrow
Ossification that produces most bones & develops from pre-existing models?
Architecture of bone determined by mechanical stresses placed on it and bones adapt to withstand those stresses?
Wolff's Law of Bone
Zone with typical hyaline cartilage farthest from the marrow cavity that shows no sign of transforming into bone?
Zone of Reserve Cartilage
Zone where chondrocytes are enlarged & the matrix between the lacunae become very thin?
Zone of Hypertrophy
Zone where mineral is deposited in the matrix between the columns of lacunae that is a temporary support for cartilage?
Zone of Calcification
Zone where chondrocytes die, longitudinal columns fill with osteoblasts and blood vessels, osteoclasts dissolve the calcified cartilage, & osteons and spongy bone are created by osteoblasts?
Zone of Bone Deposition
Glands on posterior surface of the thyroid used to lower calcium in the blood?
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Immovable joint formed when the gap between two bones ossify and they become a single bone?
Examples of Bony Joints?
Frontal & Mandibular in Infants & Cranial Sutures & Attachment of 1st Rib & Sternum in Elderly
Point at which adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers that emerge from one bone, cross the space between them, and then penetrate into the other?
Three types of Fibrous Joints?
Sutures, Gomphoses (Tooth Socket), & Syndesmoses (Interrosseous Membrane)
Three types of Sutures?
Serrate (Wavy) - Coronal, Sagittal, & Lambdoid Sutures, Lap (Overlapping) - Temporal & Parietal Bones, & Plan (Butt) - Palatine Processes of Maxillae
Two type of Cartilaginous Joints?
Synchondroses (Ribs/Sternum & Epiphyseal Plate) & Symphyses (Pubic Symphysis)
Saclike extension of joint capsule between nearby structures so they slide more easily past each other?
Cylinders of connective tissue lined with synovial fluid membrane and wrapped around tendon?
Tendon Sheaths (Modified Bursae)
ROM is determined by?
Structure of articular surfaces, strength and tautness of ligaments and joint capsules, & actions of the muscles and tendons
Six types of Synovial Joints?
Ball-And-Socket (Head of Humerus into Glenoid Cavity), Hinge (Elbow), Saddle (Thumb), Pivot (Dens of Axis), Plane (Carpals & Tarsals), & Condyloid/Ellipsoid (Base of Fingers)
Gap junctions in the osteon lamellae that allow transport of nutrients and wastes of an osteon to the bloodstream?
Develop in bone marrow by fusion of stem cells for the purpose of remodeling and breaking down bone tissue?
Produces the flat bones of the skull and the clavicle by creating bone tissue on trabeculae and forming marrow cavities; forms spongy bone in the middle of two external layers of compact bone?
Primary and secondary ossification centers produce bones in the hyaline cartilage model; forms long bones like the femur and humerus?
Secreted by C cells of the thyroid gland when calcium levels rise too high; inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts?
Dynamic tissue for support, protection, movement, blood formation, mineral reservoir, pH balance, etc. - bone tissue?
The outer fibrous layer of collagen fibers that merge with tendons or perforating fibers that penetrate into the bone matrix?
Contained in the shaft (diaphysis) of a long bone to store the fatty, yellow bone marrow in adults?
Space-filled bone formed by rods and plates of bone to provide the skeleton with strength but little weight?
The model for endochondral ossification and found at the ends (epiphysis) of long bones after ossification as articular cartilage?
The remains of hyaline cartilage on the joint surface; protects the ends of bones at joints?
The tensile strength of these protein fibers allow bone to adapt to tension and compression forces; the organic portion of bone matrix?
The head of a long bone where the red bone marrow would be found; it is covered over by a layer of articular cartilage?
The inorganic portion of the bone matrix that is crystallized calcium phosphate salt?
These form and help mineralize the organic matter in bone matrix; they form osteocytes after they become trapped in the matrix they lay down?
Bones are raised vertically above or lowered; Ex- mandibles during biting and chewing?
Elevation & Depression
Bones that are joined together by hyaline cartilage; costal cartilage of the ribs connected to the sternum?
Type of joint where there is little or no movement; the bones join so firmly they cannot move?
Movement where one end of an appendage is stationary and the other makes a circular motion?
Movement of a body part away from the midline; Ex- raising the arm to the side away from the torso?
Joint formed where two bones are joined by a ligament; interosseous membrane at radius/ulna and tibia/fibula?
Movement of the body part toward the midsagittal plane; hand moves to left breast for the pledge?
A monoaxial joint where a convex surface of one bone fits into a concave depression on the other bone; Ex- ulna and humerus, femur and tibia, finger and toe phalanges type of joint?
Joint formed by two bones joined by fibrocartilage; Ex- where the two hip bones joins or the intervertebral discs?