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224 terms

Chapter 10

STUDY
PLAY
Jewish monotheism
emphasized the power and abstraction of God
A society is almost certainly a civilization if
it has some political structure
the development of writing
whelps explain why government could become more formal and bureaucratic
Sumerian civilization produced the first
written law code
the development of agriculture caused important changes in all of the following EXCEPT
the tendency to believe in many gods
the Neolithic revolution occurred first in
the Middle East
Egypt differed from Mesopotamian civilization by displaying
well-organized, durable empires
once developed, metal tools were preferred over stone tools for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
they were easier for ordinary people to make at home
which river-valley civilization was all but completely destroyed by invasion
indus
the tenth century BCE refers to
999-900 years before the birth of the Christ
why did the original inhabitants of Australia not develop agriculture
the first Australians were too isolated to learn of developments elsewhere until recently
the Paleolithic Age refers to
the period in which simple stone tools were developed
a characteristic of the human species before the advent of civilization was
the ability to spread to various geographic settings and climate zones
hunting and gathering societies
organize rather small groups into political units
a "dynasty" in Chinese history was
a family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation
one of China's key economic strengths was
high levels of technological innovation
Daoists would disagree with Confucianists on all of the following EXCEPT
the importance of political activitiy
the Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou in that
it was more centralized
Chinese art featured
careful craftsmanship and detail work
Ceremony became an important part of upper-class Chinese life because
the Chinese believe that people should restrain crude impulses
Which of the following was a Confucian belief
a good society has a firm patrilineal hierarchy
one difference between classical civilizations and river-valley civilizations was that in classical civilizations
political organizations were more elaborate
the "son of heaven" concept was designed to promote all of the following EXCEPT
priest's total control of the state
the Chinese government accepted Daoism for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
Daoists believed that nobles were holier than peasants
one difference between classical China and the earlier Hwang Ho river-valley civilization was that in classical China
religious sacrifices were suppressed.
all of the following constituted a function of government in Han China EXCEPT
schools for peasant girls
Compared to a Chinese nobleman, a peasant in classical China differed in all of the following EXCEPT
likelihood of literacy
which of the following were lowest in official Chinese social hierarchy(aside from the "mean people")
merchants
Chinese views or nature emphasized
harmony and balance
if the Greek genius was politics, the Roman genius was
engineering
Greek and Roman agriculture
tended to develop large, commercial estates
the Socratic method emphasized the importance of
questioning
the Senate of republican Rome particularly represented
the landed aristocracy
Roman emperors tried to content the masses by
organizing food supplies and distribution
Hellenistic society registered special advances in
science
Roman slaves were used for all of the following EXCEPT
household care and tutoring
The Roman Empire
set up a military draft to supply the Roman legions
Republican Romans and democratic Athenians would have agreed that all of the following were politically important EXCEPT
proper worship of the gods.
Greek politics resembled Indian politics in
the use of military rulers
from a Confucian viewpoint, the Roman Empire might have been criticized for placing too much confidence in
laws rather than trained officials
compared to Chinese architecture, Greek and Roman architecture
featured monumental styles
Which of the following were the most venturesome sailors in the classical world
Huns
nomadic invaders often had military advantages over the armies of empires because
they were more skilled as horsemen
everywhere it spread, Buddhism stressed
meditation and ethical behavior
the "lessons" of late Han China and the late Roman empire are that the decline of a civilization, whether temporary or permanent,
is not simply the result of attack by outside invaders
the eastern portion of the Roman empire experienced less decline than the west for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
the east resisted the spread of Christianity
Rome's fall can be most attributed to which of the following
lower population totals
despite major differences, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all show interest in
life after death
by 600 CE, an early civilization was beginning to take shape in
Central America
the end of the Gupta empire differed from the decline of the Roman empire in that it did not involve
the introduction of a new religion for the majority
the first kingdoms in Africa below the Sahara showed the influence of
Egypt and Hellenism
compared to Hinduism and Buddhism, all of the following constitute distinctive (unique) features of late-Roman Christianity EXCEPT
belief that an evil life will be punished
the spread of Buddhism to China is an example of
cultural diffusion
after 200 CE, an increasing number of people in Asia, Europe, and North Africa began to adapt faiths characterized by
monotheism
by 600, looking at the entire world, a good definition of "barbarian" would be
someone who is not part of a civilization
compared to Hinduism, Christianity is more likely to
see humans as superior to the rest of nature
Islam means
"submission"
the Arabic camel nomads were referred to as
bedouin
which of the following statements most accurately describes the extent of sedentary agriculture in the Arabian peninsula
in the far south on the Yemen and Hadramaut coasts extensive sedentary agriculture developed in ancient times
which of the following cultures found in the Arabian peninsula was most significant in shaping the development of Islam
bedouin
leaders of bedouin clans were called
shaykhs
which of the following statements concerning inter-clan relationships in bedouin society is most accurate
inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common
what was the result of inter-clan rivalries
it weakened the bedouin in comparison to neighboring peoples and empires
what clan was responsible for the foundation of Mecca
Umayyad
What was the Ka'ba
the religious shrine that was the focus of an annual truce
What was the major difference between Medina and Mecca
Political dominance in Medina was ocntested between a number of Jewish and bedouin tribes.
which of the following statements most accurately describes the status of women in bedouin society prior to Islam
women in pre-Islamic bedouin culutre enjoyed greater freedom and higher status than those of the Byzantine and Persian Empires.
what was the nature of pre-Islamic bedouin religion
bedouin religion for most clans was a blend of animism and polytheism focusing on the worship of nature spirits
which of the following represents a mounting pressure for change in pre-Islamic society
greater Byzantine and Sassanian control over Arabic tribes of the peninsula and Arabic migration to Mesopotamia
what was the clan into which Muhammad was born
Banu Hashim
what was the initial response of the Umayyads to Muhammad's new faith
they regarded him as a threat to their wealth and power as he questioned the traditional gods of the Ka'ba
what was the principle advantage of the Islamic concept of the ummah
it transcended old tribal boundaries and made possible political unity among Arab clans
which of the following statements concerning Muhammad's flight to Medina is NOT correct
Muhammad fled from Mecca with nearly one quarter of the city's population
the Umayyads were threatened by all of the following developments EXCEPT
Muhammad's destruction of the Ka'ba
What was Muhammad's teachings with respect to the revelations of other monotheistic religions
Muhammad accepted the validity of earlier Christian and Judaic revelations and taught that his own revelations were a final refinement and reformulation of earlier ones
which of the following was NOT a reason for the decline of the Abbasid dynasty by the ninth century AD
the collapse of the cities
which of the following groups did NOT revolt against Abbasid rule
Sunnis
how did the Caliph al-Mahdi resolve the problem of succession in the Abbasid dynasty
he failed to resolve the problem of dynastic succession with disastrous results
what was the fictional account of life at the court of the Caliph al-Rashid
The thousand and one nights
how did the administration of al-Rashid set a trend for subsequent Abbasid rulers
he was at the outset of his reign heavily dependent on Persian advisers, a practice that became commonplace thereafter
what was the result of the civil wars following the deaht of al-Rashid
candidates for the throne recognized the need to build up personal armies, often of slave soldiers
which of the following statements concerning the mercenary armies of the later Abbasid era is NOT accurate
despite their tendency toward random violence, they loyally defended the Abbasid Caliphs
what accounts for the disruption of the agricultural economy of the Abbasid Empire
spiralling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works, and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction and abandonment of many villages
what was the innovation of the Abbasid court with respect to women
the creation of Islamic nunneries
what was the attitude of the Abbasid's towards the institution of slavery
the Abbasid elite demanded growing numbers of both male and female slaves for concubines and domestic service
why were the practices of seclusion and veiling seen as essential in Islamic society
women were believed to be possessed of insatiable lust from which men had to be protected
which of the following statements concerning women during the Abbasid era is most accurate
women often married at puberty, set at age nine
what was the trend of urbanization during much of the Abbasid Empire
despite political disintegration and a decline in agricultural economy, towns continued to grow rapidly
what was the primary language of the later Abbasid court
Persian
what was the difference between the Islamic invasions of India and previous incursions of the subcontinent
with the Muslims, the peoples of India encountered for the first time a large-scale influx of invaders with a civilization as sophisticated as their own
how did Islam and Hinduism differ
Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system
what was Harsha's religious policy
Harsha remained steadfastly loyal to Hinduism and suppressed the few remaining Buddhist monasteries in his empire
which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct descendant of the Roman Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire lasted from roughly
500-1450
which of the following territories was always part of the Byzantine Empire
Balkans
the significance of the Byzantine Empire included all of the following EXCEPT
the empire's conquest of the Ottoman Empire and its inclusion of all of the Middle East
Which of the following does NOT represent a similarity between the spread of civilization in eastern and western Europe
Northern political units rapidly dominated the political sophistication of civilization areas in Asia and North Africa
what was the difference in the military organization of Byzantine and western Roman Empires
the Byzantine Empire recruited men from the Middle East
the name normally given to the form of Christianity that emerged in the Byzantine Empire was
Orthodox Christianity
what Eastern emperor was responsible for the attempted restoration of a united Roman Empire after 533
Justinian
all of the following were outcomes of Justinian's wars of reconquest EXCEPT
the permanent addition of Rome to the Byzantine Empire
after the seventh century, what group posed the greatest threat to the eastern frontiers of the Byzantine Empire
the Arab Muslims
in which of the following ways were the Byzantine bureaucracy and the Chinese bureaucracy similar
both bureaucracies were open to talented commoners, not just aristocrats
which of the following statements concerning Byzantine military organization is most accurate
the Byzantine Empire recruited troops within the empire by granting heritable land in return for military service
which of the following statements concerning urbanization within the Byzantine Empire is most correct
Constantinople controlled the economy and grew to enormous size, but other cities were relatively small
which of the following statements concerning the merchant class of the Byzantine Empire is most accurate
there was a large and wealthy merchant class in the Byzantine Empire, but it never gained significant political power because of the power of the bureaucracy
the religious controversy over the use of religious images in worhip that broke out in the tenth century was called
the iconoclastic controversy
what two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for Slavic language
Cyril and Methodius
why did Vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism
he believed that Roman Catholicism implied papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by state
which of the following statements concerning the Tatar invasion of Russia is most accurate
Tatar supervision did not destroy Russian Christianity or a native Russian aristocracy
the post-classical period in Western history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the fifteenth century is referred to as the
Middle Ages
in which of the following ways was the medieval West NOT like other civilizations
New religious beliefs accompanied the spread of civilization
which of the following statements concerning the impact of Christianity on polytheistic religions in western Europe is most accurate
the process of conversion produced a religious amalgam in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with Christianity
which of the following was NOT a sign of vitality in the medieval western culture following the Roman Empire's fall
the development of a purely secular society
relationships between members of the military elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty were called
feudalism
which of the following statements about feudalism is most accurate
although it inhibited the development of strong central states, some kings were able to use feudalism to build their own power
what belief did the conversion of Germanic kings create among western religious leaders, particularly the pope
that the Church had a legitimate authority separate from and superior to the secular rulers
which of the following statements concerning the Holy Roman Empire after the tenth century is most accurate
the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors became increasingly hollow, because they did not build a solid monarchy from regional foundations
which of the following did NOT occur as a result of the crusades
the crusaders did not always remain focused on religious goals
Pope Gregory VII decreed the practice of investiture invalid. What was investiture
the practice of state appointment of bishops
the Fourth Crusade was manipulated by merchants in Venice, who turned it into an attack on
Constantinople
what twelfth century monk stressed t he importance of mystical union with God over logic and philosophy
Bernard of Clairvaux
the leading figure in the synthesis of classical rational philosophy with Christian theology was a teacher at the University of Paris in the thirteenth century
Thomas Aquinas
who were the invaders who disrupted the development of political institutions in the medieval West until the tenth century
Vikings
following the fall of Rome, where was the center of the post-classical West
in the central plain of northern Europe- France, the Low Countries, southern and western Germany
the system that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers was called
manorialism
which of the following statements concerning the intellectual activity of the medieval West prior to the eighth century is most accurate
Roman scholars achieved more during this period than their Islamic counterparts
because of its base in the universities of western Europe, the dominant medieval philosophical approach was referred to as
scholasticism
medieval backwardness in western Europe accounts for
the inability of the West to establish trade contacts with the larger world commercial network
which of the following was NOT a characteristic of American civilizations during the post-classic period
monotheism
what was the relationship between the Toltecs and their predecessors in central Mexico
the Toltecs adopted many cultural features from their predecessors to which they added a strongly military ethic and human sacrifice
how did the Aztecs view the cultural achievements of the Toltecs
as the givers of civilization
the people who succeeded the Toltecs as the rulers of central Mexico were the
Aztecs
in the period shortly after the arrival of the Aztecs in the valley of Mexico, what was the nature of the political organization of the region
regional kingdoms
what city did the Aztecs establish ca. 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco
Tenochtitlan
which of the following did NOT occur as a result of the Aztec rise to power
the abandonment of human sacrifice
what was the impact of expansion and conquest on the Aztec social system
from a loose association of clans, Aztec society became a stratified society
which of the following statements concerning Aztec religion is most accurate
shortly after establishing their empire, the Aztecs abandoned all gods other then their patron, Huitzilopochtli
which of the following was NOT one of the major themes or cults of Aztec religion
deities devoted to contemplation and salvation
the central figure of the cult of human sacrifice and the most sacred deity of the Aztecs was
Huitzilopochtli
what was the Aztec view of history
like other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs believed in a cyclical pattern or repetitive destruction of the world
the Aztec innovation in intensive agriculture in the aquatic environments of the lakes of central Mexico was the development of
chinampas
what was the nature of the Aztec economy
the Aztec state redistributed many goods received as tribute, but there was a specialized merchant class that also handled long-distance trade in rare commodities
the image of the Inca empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need is referred to as
Inca socialism
what was the Inca practice of split inheritance
all political power and titles went to the ruler's successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead Inca's mummy
the religious practice most closely associated with the state and person of the Inca in Andean civilization
the sun
which of the following existed in the Aztec empire, but NOT in the Inca empire?
an extensive merchant class
in terms of integration of a centralized empire, how did the Incas and Aztecs compare
the Incas attempted to create an over-arching political state and made conscious attempts to integrate their empire as a unit, while the Aztecs did less in this regard.
the period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-Han era is referred to as the
Era of Division
what was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first Sui emperor
the creation of granaries to relieve the threat of famine
what was the result of the imperial attempt to suppress Buddhism within the Chinese empire
Buddhism survived the repression, but in a reduced state without the political influence of the early Tang years
what accounts for the relative weakness of the Song empire
the military was subordinated to the civilian administrators of the scholar-gentry, leaving the dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the frontier
which of the following statements most accurately describes the position of the scholar-gentry under the song dynasty
the ascendancy of the scholar-gentry over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals was fully secured in the Song era
which of the following was NOT an eventual impact of the development of Neo-confucian schools of thought
destruction of the mandarins
Wang Anshi, a prime minister in the 1070s and 1080s attempted to reform Song government on the basis of what Confucian school of thought
Legalism
What caused the flight of the Song dynasty from their capital in northern China
the invasions of the Jurchens who had formed the Qin kingdom
why was the construction of the Grand Canal necessary
The Yangtze River valley was becoming the major food-producing region of China by the late Tang era
which of the following statements concerning urbanization in China during the Tang-Song era is most accurate
Chinese urbanization mushroomed during the Tang-Song era with a higher proportion of the population living in cities than that found in any other contemporary civilization
Which of the following was NOT a result of the agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang emperors
the scholar-gentry were removed as landlords
in what way did foot binding serve to diminish the independence of Chinese women by the end of the song era
foot binding sufficiently crippled women to effectively confine their mobility to their household
which of the following statements concerning the status of women in the Tang-Song era is most accurate
the assertion of male dominance within the family and beyond was especially pronounced in the thinking of the Neo-Confucian philosophers
which of the following was NOT one of the reforms introduced by Wang Anshi in the face of conservative opposition
reorganization of university education
which of the following was NOT a woman who gained influence and power during the later years of the Tang dynasty
Xuanzong
what proved to be the most damaging attack on Buddhism's popularity with the people during the early Tang dynasty
the Confucians' successful campaign to convince the emperor that the Buddhist monastic establishment represented an economic threat
which of the following statements concerning entry into the Chinese bureaucracy is most accurate
although a higher percentage of candidates received office through the examination system than during the Han dynasty, birth continued to be important in securing high office.
what religion played a key role in the transmission of Chinese civilization to Japan
Buddhism
What were the reforms enacted in 646 that intended to thoroughly incorporate Chinese culture and political structure into Japanese society
Taika
what was the central purpose of the reforms of 646 in Japan
to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor
what group so threatened the security of the Japanese imperial court in the eighth century that the imperial family moved to Heian
Buddhist monks
what was the immediate impact of the imperial move to Heian
the aristocracy was restored to counterbalance the power of the Buddhist monasteries and took over most of the positions in the central government
warrior leaders in the tenth century in Japan who controlled provincial areas and ruled from small fortresses in the countryside were called
bushi
which of the following statements concerning the relationship of the imperial court to the provincial military elite is most accurate
in the absence of an imperial military force, law and order broke down leading both the emperor and high officials to hire provincial lords and their military retainers
what was the impact of the rise of the samurai on the peasantry in Japan
Japanese peasants were reduced to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked
by the eleventh and twelfth centuries, what was the status of the Japanese court aristocracy
aristocratic families at the court depended on alliances with the provincial warrior elite in order to exercise any power
what was the political result of the wars that destroyed the Ashikaga Shogunate
division of Japan into three hundred little states under the daimyos
what title was given to the military leader of the bakufu at Kamakura
shogun
what kingdom was successful in establishing a unified and independent government in Korea
Silla
Which of the following statements concerning the Korean bureaucracy under the influence of China is most accurate
Korea established a Confucian examination system on the Chinese model, but admission to the bureaucracy was determined almost exclusively by birth rather than test scores.
what was the religious preference of the Korean elite
Buddhism
Which of the following statements concerning the nature of the Korean society is most accurate
Like the Chinese, a wealthy merchant class arose in Korea, but according to Confucian dictates it never achieved high social status
Which of the following was NOT a difference between the Viet and Chinese cultures prior to their conquest by the Han emperors
Viet tendency to extended families and clan groups
which of the following Chinese cultural traits was NOT introduced into Vietnam following the Han conquest of 111 BC
Chinese insistence on the nuclear family
which of the following was a critical factor in the failure of the Chinese to hold or assimilate the Viatnamese
the failure of Chinese cultural imports to make an impact on the peasantry
following the assertion of Vietnamese independence from China in the tenth century, what aspects of Chinese culture were retained by the Vietnamese rulers
Chinese family organization
What was the political result of the Vietnamese drive to conquer regions south of the Red River basin
the division of the Vietnamese into two kingdoms with capitals at Hue and Hanoi
During what period did the nomads of central Asia impact the other global civilizations of the Eastern Hemisphere during the post-classical era
1200-1400
In most ways, the Mongols epitomized what type of society and culture
nomadic
which of the following statements concerning leadership in Mongol society is most correct
leaders were elected by free males and held office for as long as they could keep it
the Mongol military forces were
entirely cavalry
Chinggis Khan's first campaigns were directed against
the Tangut kingdom of Xi-Xia and the Qin kingdom of northern China
What tactic on the field of battle was employed most frequently by Chinggis Khan's forces
pretended flight to draw the enemy out followed by heavy cavalry attacks on the flanks
which of the following was NOT one of the positive aspects of Chinggis Khan's imperial rule
he ordered the creation of huge pastures in northern China for the use of the Mongol clans
what was the nature of the Russian resistance to the Mongol invasion
the princes of Russia refused to cooperate and were routed individually
what Russian city profited most from the Mongol invasion
Moscow
Why did the Mongols not pursue the conquest of western Europe
the death of Khagan Ogedei in Karakorum precipitated a struggle for the succession involving the khan of the Golden Horde
In addition to ending the Abbasid dynasty at Baghdad, the Mongol assault also resulted in the decline of the
Mameluks in Egypt
in addition to the Mameluk power in Egypt, why did the khan of the Ilkhan horde not follow up on the conquest of the Islamic heartland
the successor of Batu as ruler of the Golden Horde, Berke, had converted to Islam and was a potential ally of the Mameluks
The Mongol commander in the thirteenth century campaigns against the Song was Chinggis Khan's grandson,
Kubilai Khan
Which of the following statements concerning the Mongol conquest of Song China is most accurate
Song China proved one of the toughest areas for the Mongols to conquer, taking from 1235 to 1279 to subdue
In 1271, Kubilai Khan changed the name of the Mongol dynasty in China to
Yuan
Which of the following statements concerning the Yuan social order is most accurate
Muslims and central Asian allies ranked below the Mongols
What was the status of Mongolian women during the Yuan dynasty of China
Mongolian women lost status as they fell under the social apparatus of the Confucian ideology
what was the Yuan policy with respect to religion during the Mongol occupation of China
the Yuan, like their ancestors, insisted on religious toleration
What caused a decline in the military reputation of the Mongol Yuan dynasty of China
the failure of expeditions against the Japanese
The founder of the Ming dynasty, Ju Yuanzhang, came from what social class in China
peasantry
Which of the following lists the major developments of Western civilization in proper sequence
Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, absolute monarchy, Enlightenment
Which of the following statements about the Renaissance is NOT accurate
the Renaissance failed to develop any new ideas concerning political organization
Which of the following statements concerning Italian humanism is most accurate
Humanists focused on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor
Johannes Gutenberg was responsible for
the invention of movable type in the West
who is generally credited with initiating the Protestant Reformation in 1517?
Martin Luther
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the reason why Luther picked up widespread support among the German elite
German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories
Which of the following reasons suggests why common people supported the Lutheran Reformation
Lutheranism sanctioned money-making and other earthly pursuits more wholeheartedly than did traditional Christianity
What was the political of Calvanism
Calvanists sought the participation of all believers in church administration, which had the political implications of encouraging the idea of a wider access to government
who used astronomical observation and mathematical calculation to disprove the Hellenistic velief that the earth was the center of the universe
Copernicus
Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the view of Deists
While there may be a divinity, its role is only to set natural laws in motion
the monarch most associated with absolute monarchy was
Louis XIV of France
Which of the following descriptions most accurately defines mercantilism
mercantilism held that government should promote the internal economy in order to improve tax revenues and to limit imports from other nations
Which of the following states stood apart from the trend toward absolute monarchy in the seventeenth century and retained a parliamentary regime
Britain
the aftermath of the scientific revolution spilled over into a new intellectual movement in the eighteenth century called the
Enlightenment
Adam Smith's economic theory advocated
that governments avoid regulation in favor of the operation of individual initiative and market forces
How did agriculture change in the late seventeenth century
new technology and better stock-breeding methods resulted in higher productivity
in 1733, James Kay of England introduced
the flying shuttle to automate weaving
What was Isaac Newton's work published in 1687 that drew various theories together into a framework of natural laws
Principia
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the nature of manufacturing in the later eighteenth century
the eighteenth century witnessed a rapid spread of household production of textiles and metal products, mostly by rural workers who alternated manufacturing with some agriculture