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Ch. 10 Radiation protection - Dose Limits for Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
Terms in this set (56)
What are some Radiation Protection Standards Organizations?
-International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)
-National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)
What does the ICRP do?
Evaluate information on biologic effects of radiation and provide radiation protection guidance through general recommendations on occupational and public dose limits.
What does the NCRP do?
Reviews regulations formulated by the ICRP and decides ways to include those recommendations into U.S. radiation protection criteria.
What does UNSCEAR do?
Evaluated human and environmental ionizing radiation exposure and derives radiation risk assessments from epidemiologic data and research conclusions: provides information to organizations for evaluation.
What does NAS/NRC-BEIR do?
Reviews studies of biologic effects of ionizing radiation and risk assessment and provides the information to organizations for evalutation.
What does the NRC control?
-The possession, use, and production of nuclear energy.
-Regulates the use of naturally occurring and manufactured radioactive materials
What are agreement states?
Agreements between the states and the NRC to abide by and enforce radiation regulations through their health departments.
What is the FDA?
Food and Drug Administration; conducts ongoing product radiation control program.
What is OSHA?
Occupational Safety and Health Administration; Monitors places of employment, alerts employees of workplace hazards
T/F The ICRP functions as an enforcement agency.
What is considered the international authority regarding safe use of ionizing radiation?
Who determines how ICRP recommendations are incorporated into U.S. criteria?
What is the current method for assessing radiation exposure and risk of biological damage?
Effective Dose Limiting System assesses radiation exposure and associated risk of biologic effects for radiation workers and the general public.
Who has the authority for specific areas such as determining the action level for radon?
What does the Linear non-threshold response curve state?
Any dose will potentially cause an adverse biological effect.
What is the objective of radiation protection?
To limit the risk of stochastic responses to a conservative level
What is the purpose of the radiation safety committee?
Assists in the development of a radiation safety program, provide guidance for the radiation safety program, facilitate the ongoing operation of the committee and program.
What is the tissue weighting factor?
Indicates the ratio of the risk of stochastic effects attributable to irradiation of a tissue/organ
What is the annual occupational EfD limit?
50 mSv (5 rem)
How do you find the cumulative EfD limit?
Age x 10 mSv
How do you find the collective EfD limit?
EfD avg. x #persons exposed
What is the non-occupational dose limit?
Continuous= 1 mSv
Non-continuous= 5 mSv
What is the pregnant radiation worker dose limit?
What is the total dose that a pregnant woman can get?
What is the dose a rad tech student can get?
What is the annual dose limit for occupational exposure?
What is the cumulative occupation exposure dose limit?
What is the equivalent dose annual limit for the lens of the eye?
What is the equivalent dose annual limit for the localized areas of the skin, hands, and feet?
What is the effective dose limit of continuous or frequent for the public?
What is the effective dose limit of infrequent exposures for the public?
What is the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for the public?
What is the equivalent dose limit for the localized areas of the skin, hands, and feet for the public?
What is the effective dose for natural sources?
What is the exposure to radon and its decay products?
What is effective dose for educational and training purposes?
What is equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for educational and training purposes?
What is the equivalent dose limit for the localized areas of the skin, hands, and feet for educational and training purposes?
What is the equivalent dose limit for an embryo-fetus?
0.5 mSv MONTHLY
What is the negligible individual dose limit annually?
What is the most important thing to remember when trying to shield for a CT scan?
Using a wrap around shield
What does stochastic mean?
Probabilistic; mutational, non-threshold, randomly occurring
What does nonstochastic mean?
-Deterministic; Directly related to dose received
-Most commonly after large doses of radiation.
-More probable when doses exceed 2 Gy
-Sigmoid threshold dose response curve
What is radiation-induced malignancy?
Cancerous neoplasms caused by exposure to ionizing radiation.
When did the code of standards for diagnostic x-ray equipment go into effect?
August 1, 1974
What is mutagenesis?
When ionization radiation damages reproductive cells and mutations develop and form future complications
Tissue weighting factor for Bone and Skin
Tissue weighting factor for bladder, breast, liver, esophagus, thyroid, and remainder
Tissue weighting factor for red bone marrow, colon, lung, stomach
Tissue weighting factor for gonads
Be able to solve EqD problems
Tissue weighting factor=
What are the least sensitive cells?
Adult nerve cells
What is an action limit?
Action is required when maximum dose is received.
What is the maximum radiation dose a radiation worker that's pregnant can receive per year?
What is the maximum dose of a typical pregnancy?
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