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GU System

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What happens if a tumor passes through the capsule
It passes Gerota's fascia
What is around the left kidney
Splenic flexor, spleen, stomach and pancreas
What is in a kidney unit
Medullary pyramid and cortical mantle
When does the survival rate with a kidney tumor 1/2
If it passes through the capsule or goes into a vein or sinus
What is the most anterior and posterior area of the kidney
Renal vein (anterior) and ureter (posterior)
Lobulated kidney
Children or normal structure in some adults (disappears when nephron develops)
Fibrous capsule
Sign of abnormality if difficult to remove
What is found in the renal sinus
Fat
Anatomical variation in kidney
Common; multiple renal arteries or veins, ring formed by veins, junction between renal vein and IVC
Nephrosclerosis
Age related degeneration
What may lead to nephrotrophy
Hypertension and diabetes
Innervation of kidneys
PSN and SNS reach kidney via renal sinus
Blood supply to adrenals
Inferior phrenic, aorta and renal arteries
Where does the ureter enter the bladder
2cm obliquely into the wall, prevents back flow if urine
Innervation of bladder
SNS (increase peristalsis) and PNS (decrease peristalsis)
Urachis
Median umbilical ligament
Common area of bladder cancers
Trigone, tend to burrow into muscle
Tissue surrounding bladder
Loose CT and venous plexus, often a spot of emboli
Where are most prostate cancers
Posterior lobe
Homologues
Each organ of one sex has a counterpart in opposite sex (i.e.. penis and clitoris)
Fetal sex
Often indeterminate
Mullerian duct
Develops into Fallopian tube, posterior fused portions become uterus and vagina
Mesophrenic duct
Gives rise to epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct
Testes in early fetal life
In abdomen before descending, if born w/o descent increased risk of testicular cancer
Internal abdominal oblique muscle becomes
Cremaster muscle
Peritoneum becomes
Tunica vaginalis
Transverse abdominal muscle becomes
Internal spermatic fascia
Appendix epididymis and appendix testes are homologues of
Distal fallopian tube or oviduct
Prostatic utricle homologue of
Uterus
Testicular/prostatic cancer and lymph nodes
Para-aortic
Prostatic venous plexus
Source of pulmonary emboli
Where is the ovary located
Behind the broad ligament
Where does ovarian cancer come from
Surface epithelium (peritoneum)
Hydatid cyst of Morgangi
Cyst like remnant of Mullein duct
Prolapsed uterus
Drops into vagina
Cystocele
Bladder pushes into vagina
Rectocele
Rectum pushes into vagina
Function of the kidneys
To filter blood, specifically nitrogen and urea
If blood pressure decreases...
Urine production decreases
Stone in the ureter-renal pelvic junction
Lumbar/flank plane
Stone where ureter dips into pelvis
Inguinal/pubic pain
Stone where ureter goes into bladder
Perineum or thigh pain
Labia majora homologue
Scrotum
Round ligament homologue
Spermatic cord
Pampiniform plexus
Countercurrent heat exchange
Pudendal nerve
Micturition, defecation, erection, ejaculation, parturition
Are the kidneys fixed in the abdomen
No, they can move around a few inches
What muscles are the kidneys on
Psoas
Where do the ovarian/testicular veins end
IVC (right) and renal vein (left)
Is there a direct connection between the IVC and portal system
No
What is around the right kidney
Right lobe liver, hepatic flexor, duodenum
What may be paired with a lung cancer
Adrenal metastases
Where is vasculitis common
Lung and kidneys
Where does the renal capsule reflect
Into the kidneys and outside of the calyx and pelvis
What is also seen with kidneys that have double ureters
2 pelvis and 2 calices
What is inferior to the bladder (males)
Prostate
What is posterior to the bladder (males)
Rectum, vas deferens and seminal vesicle
Ways to orientate prostate
Verumontanum, confirmation of prostate (tapered at apex), seminal vesicles are posterior
When is the middle lobe of the prostate visible
When it's hypertrophic
External abdominal oblique muscle becomes
External spermatic fascia
Where can an indirect hernia occur
Down the spermatic cord
Hydrocele
Pocket of fluid caused by an indirect hernia
What is in the spermatic cord
Vas deferens, testicular artery, pampiniform plexus
CT in penis
Buck's fascia
Junction between exo- and endo-cervix
Cervical-endocervical junction
Recess around the cervix
Fornix
What supports the uterus
Floor of the pelvis and bladder (anteverted)
Where may prostatic cancers travel
Across the spine
Where does the internal iliac supply
Pelvis
Where does the external iliac lead to
Inferior epigastric artery
Mesovarium
Reflection of peritoneum over ovary
Mesosalpinx
Connection b/w fallopian tube and broad ligament
Synonym for vulva
Pudendum
Anal fissures are common when
Anal sinus or column tears
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