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ACE inhibitors and ARBs

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What does the renin-angiotensin system do?
Regulates plasma sodium concentration
Regulates arterial blood pressure
Which cells in the kidney release renin?
Juxtaglomerular cells
How does angiotensin II increase glomerular filtration?
Efferent arteriole constriction
How does angiotensin II increases reabsorption?
Stimulating Na+/H+ exchangers located on the proximal tubules
Stimulating the hypertrophy of renal tubule cells
Increasing the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex
Increasing release of ADH (vasopressin)
4 effects of the renin-angiotensin system
Increases blood pressure
Increases glomerular filtration
Increases tubular reabsorption
Increases ventricular hypertrophy
Indications for ACE inhibitors
Hypertension.
Cardiac failure.
Following myocardial infarction (especially when there is ventricular dysfunction)
Diabetic nephropathy with microalbuminuria
Contraindications to ACE inhibitors
Renal artery stenosis
Hyperkalaemia
Pregnancy
Side effects of ACE inhibitors
Hypotension
Dry cough
Angiooedema
Hyperkalemia
Reduction in glomerular filtration