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What are the products of linear photophosphorylation?


In autotrophic bacteria, where are the enzymes located that can carry on organic synthesis?

inner membrane surface of the plasma membrane

In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from

the stroma to the thylakoid space.

How is photosynthesis similar in C4 and CAM plants?

In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially.

In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to

oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration.

In C4 and CAM plants carbon dioxide is fixed in the _____ of mesophyll cells.


C4 plants differ from C3 and CAM plants in that C4 plants _____.

transfer fixed carbon dioxide to cells in which the Calvin cycle occurs

After chromosomes condense, the ______ is the region where the identical DNA molecules are most tightly attached to each other


During Mitosis, microtubules attach to chromosomes at the _______


In dividing, what phase has the most growth


The ____________ is a cell structure consising of microtubules, which forms during early mitosis and plays a role in cell division

Mitotic Spindle

During interphase, most of the nucleus is filled with a complex of DNA and protein in a dispersed form called


The ________ are the organzing centers for mcrotubules involed in seperatng chromasomes during mitosis


The formation of a cell plate is beginning across the middle of a cell and nuclei are re-forming at opposite ends of the cell. What kind of cell is this?

a plant cell undergoing cytokenesis

During prophase, the microtubules of the mitotic spindle


During anaphase, the nonkinetochore microtubules __________ and move past each other, and the kinetochore mcrotubules __________

lengthen, shorten

During Telophase, the nonkinetochore microtubules


An enzyme that attaches a phosphate group to another molecule is called a


The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is due to

the degradation of cyclin.

The drug cytochalasin B blocks the function of actin. Which of the following aspects of the cell cycle would be most disrupted by cytochalasin B?

cleavage furrow formation

Replication of DNA does not occur during


Nucleoli are present during _____.


Centromeres divide and sister chromosomes become full-fledged chromosomes during _____.


Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____.


Cytokinesis in animal cells involves the formation of a

cleavage furrow

The events of prometaphase include the attachment of spindle fibers to


During prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consists of _____.

two chromosomes and four chromatids

During _____ both the contents of the nucleus and the cytoplasm are divided.

mitotic phase

During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes.


Through a microscope, you can see a cell plate beginning to develop across the middle of a cell and nuclei re-forming on either side of the cell plate. This cell is most likely

a plant cell during cytokenesis

Referring to a plant sexual life cycle, which of the following terms describes the process that leads directly to the formation of gametes?

Gametophyte mitosis

Homologous chromosomes synapse and crossing over occurs.

The statement is true for meiosis I only.

How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that have replicated their DNA and are just about to begin meiosis?

They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.

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