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APES Ch 1/2 Review
All the review questions from that monster review sheet. I left out a few that I honestly couldn't figure out with the internet or the textbook. Message me on Facebook if there are any errors.
Terms in this set (52)
Why can pollution cleanup efforts be ineffective?
Pollution cleanup is only temporary if population and consumption levels keep growing. Often only takes a pollutant from one part of the environment to another. Also costs too much to often reduce to acceptable levels.
What are the three countries that, when grouped together, account for more than half of the world's economic output?
I guessed China, US, and India. I really have no idea what the answer to this was.
What is a nonpoint source of pollution? Be able to identify examples.
Pollution sources that are dispersed and difficult to identify. Include pesticides in air, runoff of trash, fertilizers, pesticides.
What is a resource called what it is too expensive to extract?
What is tragedy of the commons? Give examples.
When common property and open access resources are degraded. Include oceans, parks, atmosphere.
What would a person who had an environmental wisdom worldview believe?
We are part of/dependent on nature, & our success depends on learning how life on earth sustains itself.
What are nonrenewable resources? Give examples.
Resources existing in fixed quantity in Earth's crust, and are exhaustible. Include energy resources (coal/oil), metallic minerals (copper/aluminum), nonmetallic minerals (salt/sand)
What is exponential growth? Give example
When a quantity increases at a fixed percentage over time
What is environmental degradation?
Depleting normally renewable resources because of rising populations and consumption per person.
What is economic growth? What are the positives and negatives?
An increase in the nation's output of goods and resources.
Pros- improves quality of life for the people in the nation
Cons- Increases consumption and ecological footprint
What is the three-factor model that accounts for environmental degradation and pollution?
Impact = population x affluence x technology
What is the "market value in dollars of goods and services produced in a country for use within a year" called?
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Which type of resource do we use based on their sustainable yield?
What are the main (root) causes of environmental problems?
Human population growth, affluence and poverty, pricing in the marketplace, differing views over solutions.
What capital would be included under natural capital?
Air, water, soil, wildlife, forests, rangeland, fishery, mineral, and energy resources. Also the processes of natural purification, recycling, and pest control.
Describe developed countries in terms of world population, agriculture use, use of world's resources, location, and GNPs per person.
19% of world's population developed. They use 86% of all resources, and produce 75% of the world's pollution and waste.
What would most likely be an economists worldview (planetary management worldview)?
We are separate and in charge of the world. Nature only exists to meet our needs and wants. We can use technology to manage the life-support systems for our benefit indefinitely.
What is reuse? Identify examples.
Using a resource over and over in the same form. Includes washing a jar and using it to store food, or reusing waterbottles.
Rule of 70- if the world's population grew by 3% in 1999 and continued at this rate, how long would it take for the Earth's population to double?
What are some effects of pollution?
Disrupting and degrading life support systems for humans/other species; damaging wildlife, human health, and property; and be nuisances like noise, unpleasant smells, tastes, and sights.
What is an environmentally sustainable society?
A society meeting the current needs of its people for food, clean water, clean air, shelter, and other basic resources without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
What is the difference between sustainable development and economic development? What does sustainable development emphasize?
Economic development is the improvement of living standards by economic growth. Sustainable development meets the needs of the current generation while protecting the environment for later generations.
Why wouldn't burning cardboard and plastics so they don't take up landfill space be the most environmentally friendly way to deal with that solid waste problem?
It would simple cause more air pollution, and not really solve the problem.
Describe developing countries in terms of their GNPs per person, contribution to world population, industrialization, and use of world resources. List a few developing countries.
Developing countries make up 81% of the world's population. They have low industrialization, and use only 12% of the world's resources. These countries are mostly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Compare developing countries to developed countries in terms of population over age 60, population with safe drinking water, average life expectancy, and urban population.
17% of the world's population do not have access to clean drinking water. The average life expectancy in developing countries is typically younger than 50, while in developed countries it's in the 70s.
What are some new efforts to prevent tragedy of the commons?
By converting free-access resources to private ownership, or regulating access to these resources.
What are some examples of point source pollution?
Drainpipes from factories, exhaust pipes in cars, or smokestacks in factories.
How does affluenza affect a man's ecological footprint and environmental quality for people all over the world?
Affluenza uses a huge amount of resources to support a nation's population, increasing the ecological footprint. However it may have helped improved environmental quality for people by financing new technologies and other advancements.
Has air and water pollution decreased in the past in most developed countries due to money and public awareness?
Does economic development contribute to natural capital degradation?
High economic development typically leads to "developed countries" who use the most resources on the planet. Affluenza is higher there, and so they have access to more technology to fix this. Developing countries, due to population size, take a bigger toll on natural capital.
How do developing countries negatively affect the environment in terms of consumption per person and technological impact per unit of consumption?
Developing countries don't really affect the environment with their consumption per person or technological impact. The population size and resulting degradation of renewable resources is the main issue. Developed countries have such high levels of consumption contribute to the high levels of pollution and environmental degradation. Also some forms of technology such as factories, automobiles, and other energy wasting devices increase the environmental impact because they are environmentally harmful.
Who was responsible for slaughtering over 2.5 million bison a year between 1870 and 1875?
The US Army
The introduction of which technology allowed humans to cultivate grasslands for the first time?
The technology of clearing land, through slash and burn cultivation and shifting cultivation.
Was the survival of hunter-gatherers in their environment based more on chance than judgement?
It was based on judgement- they relied on their expert knowledge and understanding of the land to decide where to move to.
When did the awareness of resource depletion and environmental degradation in the US begin?
In the 1800s, between 1832 and 1870. Some people were alarmed at the resource depletion and degradation, but few were listening.
How could the attitude of the early European settlers toward North America be described?
Conquering- they saw the continent as a place with boundless resources and a hostile wilderness that needed to be conquered.
In what year was the Sierra Club founded?
Approximately how many years ago did humans begin to develop agricultural techniques?
Which government body was established in 1905?
US Forest Service
Who founded the Wilderness Society?
Who wrote "Industrial Poisons in the United States"?
Which US President proposed returning all federal lands back to states or selling them to private interests?
Which act levied a tax on funs and ammunition to support wildlife conservation and research?
Rachel Carson's book, "Silent Spring", drew attention to which environmental problem?
Effects of pesticides
In what decade did the science of ecology begin to come to the forefront?
What issue did the Montreal Protocol address?
Do environmentalists believe President Clinton did an outstanding job protecting the environment?
No, he was criticized for not pushing hard enough on key environmental issues like global warming and biodiversity protection.
Which US city was evacuated because of dioxin contamination?
Times Beach, Missouri
Which administration created the department of energy?
Which anti-environment measures did Ronald Reagan put in place?
He cut funding for research on energy conservation and renewable energy resources, and eliminated tax incentives for residential solar energy enacted during Carter's administration. Lowered automobile gas mileage standards, and relaxed federal air and water quality pollution standards. Also put anti-environmental people in key political positions.
In what state was the first beverage bottle recycling law enacted?
What event prompted a backlash to the environmental movement called the sagebrush rebellion?
The passing of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act, which gave the Bureau of Land Management its first real authority to manage the public land under its control.
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