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What are the most common causes of IVC obstruction?
right heart failure
lymph node enlargement
Which vein on the upper portion of the main portal vein is not commonly seen on ultrasound?
What can cause portal vein thrombosis?
inflammation from an abdominal process
Sonographically, how can a portal vein thrombosis be detected?
clot in vessel
unable to visualize portal vein
An increase in portal venous pressure resulting in the vein measuring >13 mm is considered what?
What causes portal hypertension?
fatty infiltration of the liver
inflammation (from alcoholism/cirrhosis)
What is TIPS?
metal stent placed between a hepatic vein & intrahepatic portal vein to the jugular vein (usually the right veins)
What can be seen sonographically when a patient has been treated with a TIPS?
a bright white-echogenic tubular structure between the portal and hepatic veins
When are arterial/venous shunts & fistulas commonly placed?
dialysis (treating kidney disease)
biopsy of kidney or femoral artery
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