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Frost Action

the force of freezing water splits rocks apart.


the peeling of rounded thin layers from the rock's surface.


the chemical reaction of water with other substances.


the chemical reaction of oxygen with other substances. (rust)


carbonic acids dissolve rocks and caves from underground.

Sulfuric Acid

pollution from factories dissolve in rainwater and eats away at rocks and buildings.


wearing away of rocks by wind or water

Chemical Weathering

chemical alteration or decomposition of rocks and minerals.

Physical Weathering

disintegration of rocks and minerals by a physical or mechanical process.


organisms that break down the remains of dead organisms and excrete the minerals back into the soil and rock material

frost action

the force of freezing water splits rocks apart

organic activity

when roots grow or animals dig holes, rocks split apart

wetting and drying

constant swelling and shrinking makes rocks crack

sheet jointing

the removal of large masses of rock causes rocks to expand


the peeling of rounded thin layers from the rock's surface

plant acids

acids formed by the decay of plants & animals eat away rocks


the process that breaks rocks down into smaller and smaller fragments


carrying pieces away


the principile that states that processes operate the same as the ydid in the past

mechanical weathering

breaking into pieces caused by freezing and thawing

ice wedging

water freezes in cracks and expands


roots grow under and into other materials


diffing can expose new rock surfaces to weathering

permeable low

_________ rocks with a _______ density; many spaces

impermeable high

_________ rocks with a _______ density; tightly packed


mixture of weathered rock, decayed organic matter, mineral fragments, water, and air

climate, slope, type of rock, type of vegetation, amount of time rock has been weathered

factors that affect soil formation


layer of solid rock beneath the soil layers


decaying organic matter

soil horizon

different layers of soil

soil profile

vertical layering of all soil horizons


soil made up of equal parts of clay, sand, and silt; great for growing plants

slope, agricultural cultivation, deforestation, overgrazing, urban construction

causes of erosion

contour plowing

cultivating sideways rows on a hill


building step-like levels on a hill

strip cropping and crop rotation

planting different crops in different places every year

shelter belt (tree belt)

planting trees to block the wind

proper grazing management

not allowing animals to eat too much of any one pasture area

no-till farming

leaving plant stalks to be tilled under in the spring when planting

mulch, concrete walls, stone, wood mats, plastic coverings

Use of ____, ____, _____, _____, or ____ _____ to slow erosion.


planting trees on barren areas


soil is damaged from little or no rainfall causing desert-like conditions

dust bowl

area of the Midwest where in the 1930's the soil was ruined by poor farming techniques


water soaks into lower soil horizons

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