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44 terms

Science Test 11/18/2009

STUDY
PLAY
Frost Action
the force of freezing water splits rocks apart.
Exfoliation
the peeling of rounded thin layers from the rock's surface.
Hydrolysis
the chemical reaction of water with other substances.
Oxidation
the chemical reaction of oxygen with other substances. (rust)
Carbonation
carbonic acids dissolve rocks and caves from underground.
Sulfuric Acid
pollution from factories dissolve in rainwater and eats away at rocks and buildings.
Abrasion
wearing away of rocks by wind or water
Chemical Weathering
chemical alteration or decomposition of rocks and minerals.
Physical Weathering
disintegration of rocks and minerals by a physical or mechanical process.
Decomposer
organisms that break down the remains of dead organisms and excrete the minerals back into the soil and rock material
frost action
the force of freezing water splits rocks apart
organic activity
when roots grow or animals dig holes, rocks split apart
wetting and drying
constant swelling and shrinking makes rocks crack
sheet jointing
the removal of large masses of rock causes rocks to expand
exfoliation
the peeling of rounded thin layers from the rock's surface
plant acids
acids formed by the decay of plants & animals eat away rocks
weathering
the process that breaks rocks down into smaller and smaller fragments
erosion
carrying pieces away
uniformitarianism
the principile that states that processes operate the same as the ydid in the past
mechanical weathering
breaking into pieces caused by freezing and thawing
ice wedging
water freezes in cracks and expands
plants
roots grow under and into other materials
animals
diffing can expose new rock surfaces to weathering
permeable low
_________ rocks with a _______ density; many spaces
impermeable high
_________ rocks with a _______ density; tightly packed
soil
mixture of weathered rock, decayed organic matter, mineral fragments, water, and air
climate, slope, type of rock, type of vegetation, amount of time rock has been weathered
factors that affect soil formation
bedrock
layer of solid rock beneath the soil layers
humus
decaying organic matter
soil horizon
different layers of soil
soil profile
vertical layering of all soil horizons
loam
soil made up of equal parts of clay, sand, and silt; great for growing plants
slope, agricultural cultivation, deforestation, overgrazing, urban construction
causes of erosion
contour plowing
cultivating sideways rows on a hill
terracing
building step-like levels on a hill
strip cropping and crop rotation
planting different crops in different places every year
shelter belt (tree belt)
planting trees to block the wind
proper grazing management
not allowing animals to eat too much of any one pasture area
no-till farming
leaving plant stalks to be tilled under in the spring when planting
mulch, concrete walls, stone, wood mats, plastic coverings
Use of ____, ____, _____, _____, or ____ _____ to slow erosion.
reforestation
planting trees on barren areas
desertification
soil is damaged from little or no rainfall causing desert-like conditions
dust bowl
area of the Midwest where in the 1930's the soil was ruined by poor farming techniques
leeching
water soaks into lower soil horizons