Pharmacology Ch. 9: Local Anesthetics
Terms in this set (42)
The following are characteristics of the ideal local anesthetic except:
Which portion of the chemical structure of a typical local anesthetic is considered lipophilic (lipid soluble)?
The mechanism of local anesthetics involves action on:
Both B & C ( Axons AND Sodium channels)
Repolarization of a nerve occurs by:
Influx of potassium
The following states are characteristics of the salt form of a local anesthetic except one. Which one is the exception?
In the presence of an acidic environment, such as infection or inflammation, the amount of free base is reduced; therefore __________ of the local anesthetic is in the ionized form, making anesthesia __________ difficult.
The cationic form of a local anesthetic is needed to penetrate the nerve membrane, and the free base form exerts blocking action by binding to the specific receptor site.
Both parts of the statements are false.
Reducing the rate of systemic absorption of a local anesthetic is important when it is used in dentistry because:
The chance of systemic toxicity is reduced.
Addition of vasoconstrictor to local anesthetic (1) reduces blood supply to the area, (2) increases blood supply to the area, (3) limits systemic absorption, (4) increases systemic absorption, (5) reduces systemic toxicity, (6) increases systemic toxicity. Which of the three pairs of choices is correct?
1, 3, 5
Local anesthetics cross:
The placenta and blood-brain barrier
Amide local anesthetics are metabolized:
Primarily by the liver
Procaine (Novocaine) is metabolized primarily by the:
Which of the following local anesthetic agents have the potential to cause methemoglobinemia as an adverse effect?
Prilocaine and articaine
Which nerve function is the most sensitive to inhibition by local anesthetic agents?
The maximal safe dose of lidocaine 2% with 1:100,000 epinephrine is approximately __________ cartridges.
Which of the following agents are the most common agents precipitating malignant hyperthermia? (1) halothane, (2) lidocaine, (3) mepivacaine, (4) succinylcholine
Which of the following local anesthetics is safest to use for dental treatment for a pregnant woman?
Which of the following agents may be used as an alternative if a patient reports a history of allergies to all local anesthetic agents?
Which of the following components of a local anesthetic agent may produce a hypersensitivity reaction that exhibits itself as an acute asthmatic attack?
The antioxidant for the vasoconstrictor
Epinephrine is combined with local anesthetics so as to:
Lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 provides a __________ duration of pulpal anesthesia.
60- to 90-minute
Which of the following statements is true of mepivacaine?
Mepivacaine can be used as a 3% solution without a vasoconstrictor.
Levonordefrin is commonly combined with which local anesthetic?
Several cases of methemoglobinemia have been reported after the use of:
Prilocaine plain has a duration of action slightly __________ than mepivacaine plain, and prilocaine with epinephrine has a duration of action slightly __________ than lidocaine with epinephrine.
Which of the following local anesthetics has the longest duration of action?
Which local anesthetic agent is derived from thiophene?
Which of the following local anesthetic agents is both an ester and an amide?
Approximately __________% of articaine is metabolized by the liver.
5 to 10
__________ is an ester local anesthetic.
Which local anesthetic agent is neither an ester nor an amide?
Which of the following agents is known to inhibit nonproductive cough?
Bezonatate (Tessalon Perles)
The vasoconstrictors are members of the autonomic nervous system drugs called the:
Plain anesthetics without vasoconstrictor will exhibit a __________ duration of action and result in a __________ buildup of a systemic blood level.
Patients with uncontrolled high blood pressure, hyperthyroidism, angina pectoris, and cardiac arrhythmias and those who have had a myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident in the past __________ should make an appointment for elective dental treatment after their medical condition is under control.
The maximal safe dose of epinephrine for the cardiac patient is __________ mg.
Which agent has the greater proportion of -adrenergic activity to -adrenergic activity?
A cardiac patient can be given __________ cartridges of 1:100,000 epinephrine without exceeding the cardiac dose.
Which two agents are known to cause clinically significant drug interactions when combined with epinephrine?
Adrenergic antagonists and tricyclic antidepressants
Which of the following dental local anesthetics are available without vasoconstrictor?
(1) mepivacaine, (2) prilocaine, (3) lidocaine, (4) bupivacaine
Which of the following agents is the most common topical local anesthetic?
Which of the following local anesthetics may be combined for injection-free local anesthesia?
Lidocaine and prilocaine
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