How does carbon enter the biosphere?
Via plants. They use solar energy to transfer atmospheric CO2 into the molecules of life
What is organic chemistry? How did it come about?
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds, regardless of origin.
-In the early 1800s, Berzelius made distinction between compounds from living things and not. He called it organic (he was heavily influenced by vitalism).
-Eventually, chemists began to synthesize organic compounds. urea was the first one.
In the 1950s Miller tested whether complex organimc molecules could arise abiotically and spontaneously in early Earth conditions. They did.
What is vitalism? What is mechanism?
Vitalism was the belief that a life force existed outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws. This is why only organic molecules were from organisms only. Mechanism is the opposite - it is the belief that physical and chemical laws govern all natural phenomena, including the process of life. In the 1950s, this helped to push the idea that organic molecules could spontaneously and abiotically be created from inorganic molecules.
Why is carbon very verstile?
Carbon creates inexhaustible variety because:
1) it can form 4 bonds, hence able to form large and complex molecules. It's valence shell has 4 atoms in different orbitals, so it can covalently bond with four other atoms Each carbon acts as an intersection point from which a molecle can branch off. This is why biological molecule sare so diverse.
2) There are actually only 5 main major elements of life, C,H,O,N,S,P - but carbon is the key for diversity.
What is tetravalence?
Tetravalence is when a molecule like carbon has the ability to create four covalent bonds with other atoms and can therefore branch off in as many as four directions.
What are hydrocarbons? Why are they important?
The hydrocarbons are long chains of hydrogens covalently bonded to carbon skeleton. They are the major components of fossil fuels. In living being, organic molecules have regions of hydrocarbons, like fatty acids. When in reactions, they release a TON of energy.
What are carbon isomers?
compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different structures.
What are the three types of isomers we learned about in class?
Structural - same molecular formula, different structure of bonding
geometric - different arrangement about a double bond
enantiomers - mirror images
What happens to the possibility of structural isomers as carbon skeletons increase in size?
Possible isomers increase tremendously.
Single bonds allow atoms they join to rotate freely. With double bonds, it is more rigid.
Four groups arranged in space around asymmetric carbon in two different ways. They are mirror images of each other. One is viologically acive and the other is in active.
What is the chiral carbon?
It is the middle carbon atached to four different atoms or group of atoms.
What type of isomers are these?
3) same molecule
What type of isomers are these?
7) not isomers, different formula
11) not isomers, different formula
12) not isomers, same
What are functional groups?
Functional groups are chemical groups attached to the carbon atom and gives the molecule specific properties.
They are CASHCaMP.
What are they? (CASHCaMP)
Carboxyl - COOH
Amino - NH2
Sulfhydryl - SH
Hydroxyl - OH
CArbonyl - CO
methyl - CH3
Phosphate - -PO4
Which functional group imparts basic properties to molecule?
Amines, -NH2. They can absorb an H to become NH3.
What does an amino acid look like?
Amino acids have amino on one side and a carboxyl on the other. there is an R attached to the chiral carbon.
Why are amino acids natural buffers?
One side can accept a proton (NH2) but the other side can donate (COOH).
Amino acids always have which isomer?
They always have enantiomers. Living organisms only make the L enantiomer amino acids. If not living, the process creates equal amounts of L and R.
where are they?
They are in proteins. Two of them create a disulfide bridge. They stabilize protein's tertiary structure. It actually exists cisteines.
ketones and aldehydes may be
Structural isomers. They have differen tproperties because they have different structures.
Where are methyl groups located?
They are non reactive and change shape They are everywhere that needs to be hydrophobic.
This functional group is polar because the electronegative oxygen has a strong attraction for electrons. Water is attracted to this group, and therefore molecules that have this group (such as sugars) tend to dissolve in water. Alcohols are characterized by this functional group. What is this?
Hydroxyl groups "-OH"
This group is polar because oxygen has a strong attraction for electrons. If this group is at the end of a carbon skeleton, the molecule is called an aldehyde; otherwise it is called a ketone.
Carbonyl group "-CO"
The two electronegative oxygens of this group pull electrons away from the hydrogen atom. This weakens the bond between oxygen and hydrogen, and the hydrogen atom tends to dissociate from the molecule as a hydrogen (H+) ion. Because it donates hydrogen ions, this group is acidic, and molecules that contain these groups are known as carboxylic acids.
carboxyl group "-COOH"
The slightly electronegative nitrogen atom in this group tends to pick up hydrogen ions from the surrounding solution, and thus this functional group acts as a base. Because of the added hydrogen ion, this group usually has a +1 charge in the cell. This group is characteristic of organic molecules called amines.
amino group "-NH2"
Molecules termed thiols are characterized by this group, which resembles a hydroxyl group. These groups interact to help stabilize the structure of many proteins.
The electronegative oxygens of this functional group draw electrons, and as a result the group acts as an acid, losing hydrogen ions to the surrounding solution. This dissociation leaves the group with a negative charge. This group is important in ATP and the transfer of energy between organic molecules.
phosphate group "-OPO3^2-"
A straight chain carbon compound constructed from ___ must contain at least one arbon carbon double bond.
six hydrogen, three carbon. (draw it out)
Glucose and hexanoic acid each contains six cabon atoms but they have completely different properties. Glucose is a nutrient found in food; hexanoic gas is poinsonous. Their differences must be due to
Different functional groups
Although the structures of the functional groups that are most important to life vary, they all share one thing in common. They:
are all hydrophilic and increase the organic compounds water solubility. The only exception to this is the methyl group.
What is ATP's importance in the cell?
ATP stores the potential to react with water, thereby removing a phosphate group and releasing energy for cellular processes.